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《Journal of Safety and Environment》 2006-01
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On human behavior in fire accidents and computer-simulation methods

TIAN Yu-min(Department of Fire Engineering, The Chinese People's Armed Police Forces Academy, Langfang 065000, Hebei, China)  
The paper aims at introducing the author's study on the human behavior theories in fire accidents, and in turn, working out corresponding computer-simulation models and principles based on the overview of the all kinds of software so far developed both at home and abroad. The paper also introduces the features and principles of Building EXODUS which is considered to be the most comprehensive in its function. Finally an example is given to show how to apply Building EXODUS in a crowd evacuation simulation, from which some important results have been gained from the simulation test. The results so far gained include: (1) The total evacuation time should be in direct proportion to the numbers of people to be evacuated; (2) Obvious “bottle neck” phenomenon will be resulted in in front of the other exit in case one of the exits being impassable in the fire accident; (3) The actual evacuation time should be a random variable depending on the unexpected conditions or changes with different factors such as the features of the age group and health situation of the evacuated people. Traditional methods tend to underestimate the possible evacuation time in regard to the building design; (4) Computer simulation is a more scientific and dependable method which can reproduce all conceivable scenario in a fire. Thus the conclusions drawn from this paper can be stated as follows: Human and social behaviors are too complicated to be defined accurately and therefore human behaviors in a fire accident should be estimated or predicted based on the psychological and sociological behavior patterns in view of the individual as well as social framework, while considering the emergency situations as to the evacuated crowd features. And in this way it is necessary to take full account of the evacuation simulation needs through a series of computational and decision-making models and using of kinds of related simulation software. However, the results of this research may contribute to the successful development of simulation systems for the emergency exits and their exits design to give more considerate responses to the evacuation needs from fire and other natural and man-made disasters. All in all, the author believes that successful demonstration of this research may lead to practical products needed by the fire-fighting and rescuing industry.
【CateGory Index】: X928.7
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