Statistical analysis on water pollution incident in urban water supply area in China during the year 1985 to 2005
ZHANG Yong, WANG Dong-yu, YANG Kai(Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China; Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, Shanghai 200062, China)
This paper is aimed to provide a summary of the major water pollution accidents in the urban water supply areas in China during the year 1985 to 2005 in order to explore the regularity and characteristics of such accidents and their potential risks to our urban water supply system. In doing so, the paper has summarized four aspects of such incidents, including the dates, sites, pollutant types and brief descriptions of the accidents through reviewing the reports of The Chinese Environmental News and People Daily and other media and databases during the year 1985 to 2005. Next, it has listed and analyzed 102 water pollution accidents. The results of our investigation indicate: (1) the number of accidents has been increasing with the urban water supply areas are faced with more and more potential risks in past 20 years, especially in the recent 5 years; (2) the major pollutant is the chemical material and waste water discharge; (3) the major risk source comes from the inland river traffic accidents and the factory pollution events; (4) most of such accidents were reported to have produced serious social influence and economical loss because of scarcity of essential emergency institution and mechanism, especially before 2003; (5) three typical accidents are focused on the serious damage to the social and economic systems, which aroused great concern from the Chinese government and people. This paper argues that the three momentous accidents mentioned in this paper imply the great importance and urgency to establish as soon as possible an emergency system for the state urban water supply resources in the whole country.