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《Journal of Safety and Environment》 2008-02
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Health-hazard assessment for the urban water supply sources in Huangdao District of Qingdao

YANG Tong-suo,ZHENG Xi-lai,XU Yan-ying,ZOU Ying-jie,MA Yu-jie,LI Mei(Key Lab of Marine Environmental Science & Ecology,Ministry of Education,Ocean University of China,Qingdao 266100,Shandong,China)  
The present paper aims at presenting a health-hazard assessment research based on the authors' work in the efforts to provide a quantitative description of the relationship between pollutants and human health.For our research purpose,we have first of all made a general survey on the likely pollutants from 5 water-supply sources in Huangdao District of Qingdao City,including the toxic pollutants in water that may enter into human bodies through drinking and dermal contact.To test the hazards that may be caused through drinking,we have adopted the assessment model recommended by USEPA while the model of Strenge is used for assessment of the hazards that may be exposed through dermal contact.In our assessment practice,we have also used some assessment parameters provided by EPA based on the conditions of the assessed area,in which some other parameters have been modified in accordance with the related domestic literatures.The results we have gained through testing and measurement show that,the total annual maximal hazard likely to be exposed to each resident that may be caused by all kinds of pollutants is 1.54×10-4 a-1,higher than the maximum tolerable value of 5.0×10-5 a-1 recommended by ICRP and much higher than those of 1.0×10-6 a-1 recommended by Sweden Bureau of Environment Protection and Holland Ministry of Building and Environment Protection.More accurately speaking,each resident is likely to be exposed to chromium arsenic hazard originated from the chemical carcinogens whereas the degree of hazards he has to exposed himself due to non-carcinogens is fluoride plumbum cuprum ammonia cyanide hydroxybenzene.In addition,the total annual maximal hazard threatening each resident is expected to reach 9.13×10-5 a-1,higher than that of 5.0×10-5 a-1 recommended by ICRP.However,the degree of fluoride is 4.11×10-9 a-1,which is lower than the state-controlling standard.The above facts help us to conclude that the hazards due to the chemical carcinogens are potentially much higher than those of non-carcinogens.Therefore,they have been confirmed as the pollutants that should be controlled with particular attention.At the same time,the total annual hazard that is likely to be exposed through drinking is 7.51×10-4 a-1,which is also much higher than the data of 2.66×10-6 a-1 caused by dermal contact.However,the given research has neglected the impact that may be caused by radioactive substances and other organic pollutants concerned.Hence,the hazards that are taken into consideration in this research may seem to be lower than the total data of the realistic hazards likely to be caused by the general environmental pollution.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金项目(40572142)
【CateGory Index】: X824
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