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The Practice of 'Time and Space Effect' in Soft Clay Excavations

JIA Jian (The Architectural Design & Research Institute of Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, P.R.China)  
With the continuous and high-speed development of urban construction in China, the research of how to control the stability and deflection of deep excavations in urban district of soft clay region to avoid the settlement, cracking and destroy of neighboring facilities is quite necessary. In this article, the author applys the 'Time and Space Effect' theory, which is established for the soft clay with rheologic characters, through the engineering practices of deep excavations in Shanghai, to research the 'Time and Space!Effect' excavations technique, and to illustrate that to use this technique properly can solve the problem of deflection control of special and complicated deep excavations in soft clay region, so that to protect the neighboring facilities.
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