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《Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology》 1985-04
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Climatic Condition in the Formation and Evolution of Permafrost in Northeast China

Xie Youyu (Institute of Geography, Academia Sinica)  
It is shown by the existence of the fossils of Coelodonta antiquitatus-Mammuthus pn-migenius fauna, the shifting of palynoflora or paleobota-nicflora and existence of extensive periglacial sediments and relief that a cold climate existed in the vast plain and mountain area of the Northeast China. The annual mean temperature during the period was about 6-10℃ lower than that at present. According to the date of ice wedge and involution there developed permafrost in the studied area during the periglacial period of late Pleistocene. In view of the gradual change of the climate after the Pleistocene, it was impossible for the permafrost formed during the late Pleistocene to be melted completely, because the fluctuation of the annual mean temperature in China was only within 2 - 3 ℃ and no marked change to warm climate existed since the postglacial period 11,000 y. B.P.. Besides the permafrost formed during the late Pleistocene, new permafrost formed during the Holocene and even the historical period largely in the cold period of 17-18 century has been found. There were three periods of the formation of the permafrost: 1st. period, 35,000-26,000 y. B. P.; 2nd. period. 23.000-12,000 y. B. P ; 3rd. period, about 3,000 y. B. P. . From the distribution of paleo periglacial phenomena, an indicator of paleo permafrost, it is assumed that the southern limit of permafrost was located at 42 N, but it is up to 48°N at present. It is obvious that the permafrost has withdrawn northward by a latitude of 6° . With regard to the vertical perigacial zonality, the paleoperiglacial phenomena, e.g. the stony sea, reached up to 760-1,000 m a. s. 1. in the Changbaishan area during the late Pleistocene but the present periglacial zone is over 2.000 m, a rise of permafrost zone about 1.000m since the late Pleistocene. On the basis of the trend analysis of climatic change, it is not likely that an extreme global change will occur, but human activities will promote the retreat of permafrost.
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