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《Journal of Glaciolgy and Geocryology》 2000-04
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Computer Simulation and Mapping of the Regional Distribution of Permafrost along the Qinghai-Xizang Highway

WU Qing bai, LI Xin, LI Wen jun (State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, CAREERI, CAS, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China)  
Distribution of permafrost in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau is characterized by a zonation of three-dimensions. By using a method of curve fitting, an empirical correlation between lower limit of high altitude permafrost ( H L) and latitude (φ) has been obtained in the Northern Hemisphere. It can be expressed as:H L =3 650 exp [-0.003(L-25.37) 2\]+1 428(1)The model is certificated by some data along the Qinghai Xizang Highway, showing that it can precisely reflect the lower limit distribution of permafrost along the Qinghai Xizang Highway. At the same time, the traditional one dimensional permafrost model cannot be applied for regional permafrost mapping along the Qinghai Xizang Highway because of great regional difference in surface characteristics. Modeling the distribution of permafrost along the Qinghai Xizang Highway must consider high altitude permafrost characteristics, permafrost vertical zonation, and mean annual ground temperature (MAGT). The following equation is used to calculate the MAGT on each grid:T z =68.827-0.00827H-0.927L(2)Where T z is MAGT, H is the altitude (m), L is latitude(φ).This equation is based on arelationshipamong MAGT, altitude and latitude. It is obtained by using ground temperature measurements along the Qinghai Xizang Highway. The regression coefficient is 0.96 for 40 data series. Five types of permafrost stability are classified according to MAGT. MAGT of each grid along the Qinghai Xizang Highway is computed from Equations (1)、 (2) and DTMs. Then, a map showing ground temperature zones is obtained according to MAGT of each grid and permafrost classification. For thawed areas in permafrost regions, it is difficult to be modeled by the model. So, the distribution of thawed areas is obtained by digital mapping and overlaying it in the map of ground temperature zone. The result of mapping shows that the model of lower limit distribution of permafrost and ground temperature zone in permafrost can precisely describe the distribution characteristics of permafrost along the Qinghai Xizang Highway. The upper zone of permafrost generally exists in high mountainous areas, middle zone exists in Chumaer River high plain areas, mountainous base areas and valley areas, and the lower zone do not exist alone the Qinghai Xizang Highway. This result agrees with the realistic state of permafrost distribution and the effectiveness of the model is verified.
【Fund】: 中国科学院特别支持项目!“冰冻圈动态变化基础研究 (三 )”;; 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所创新项目!(2 10 0 47)资助
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