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《Journal of Glaciolgy and Geocryology》 2001-02
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Alpine Runoff Simulation of the Yalong River for the South-North Water Diversion

KANG Er-si, CHENG Guo-dong,LAN Yong-chao,CHEN Xian-zhang (Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China)  
The project of the South-North Water Diversion consists of many dams built in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, where hydrological measurements are seriously short. This causes many problems for the design discharge for the dams. This paper is intended to apply the Heihe Mountainous Watershed Runoff Model developed by the authors to simulate and study the water balance and runoff process in the upper reaches of the Yalong River, one of the main tributary of the Yangtze River. This is going to serve the determination of the design discharge of the dam. The model was developed in the mountainous watersheds of the Heihe River basin, which are located in the Qilian Mountains and by the Hexi Corridor of Gansu Province. The model simulates the runoff process by dividing the mountainous watersheds into two vertical landscape zones: the alpine ice and snow zone and the alpine vegetation zone. The simulation indicates that the model structure is suited to the basic vertical landscape zonalities of the mountains in the west of China. In the mountainous watersheds at the upper reaches of the Yalong River controlled by the Yajiang Hydrometric Station (at 2 599 m a.s.l. with a drainage area of 65 729 km 2), the water balance shows that precipitation decreases and runoff coefficient also decreases with altitude. Snowmelt runoff plays a dominant role in the runoff formation. The runoff simulation has been carried out for the mountainous watershed controlled by the Garzê Hydrometric Station (at 3 393 m a.s.l. and with 32 925 km 2 of watershed area) and the higher mountainous watershed controlled by the Wenbo Hydrometric Station (at 3 885 m a.s.l. and with 19 800 km 2 of watershed area) in the Yalong River basin. Taking the monthly air temperature and precipitation of the standard meteorological stations as the foremost inputs, the model is calibrated and tested for wet, normal and dry years, then the annual runoff series is obtained. The simulation indicates that the normal annual precipitation is 564.5 mm and runoff depth is 188.5 mm, equivalent to the annual runoff volume 37.3×10 8m 3, at Wenbo Hydrometric Station, with a snowmelt runoff contribution of 64%. This paper provides a method and basis for the determination and test of design discharge of a hydraulic engineering at the mountainous watersheds, where hydrological measurement is short
【Fund】: 国家“九五”攻关重点项目! (96 912 0 1 0 2 ;96 912 0 3 0 3S) ;; 国家自然科学基金重点项目!(973 10 3 0 ) ;; 中国科学院寒区旱区
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