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《Journal of Glaciolgy and Geocryology》 2001-04
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Studies of the Transformation between Surface Water and Groundwater and the Utilization Ratio of Water Resources in Hexi Region

ZHANG JI shi 1, 2 , KANG Er si 1, LAN Yong chao 1, CHEN Ren sheng 1, CHEN Man xiang 2 (1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China; 2. Hydrology and Water Resources Reconna  
Desert and arid areas in Northwest accounts for 34.6% of the total territory of China. Precipitation in these areas is rare, resulting in dry climate and short water resources. Therefore land resources are unbalanced with water resources in these areas. Owing to very strong evaporation and transpiration in desert, the surface water decreases with flow distance and finally flows into some inland lakes. The average annual precipitation is only 153.9 mm, whereas the evaporation is very high, from 1 200 mm to 2 692 mm. The water from high mountainous is consumed by evaporation and infiltration. In irrigation districts water can be obtained by capturing nature wastage in desert oasis. Most of water from mountain areas infiltrates in the upper pluvial fan and then transforms into groundwater. This transformation decreases the futile water, that is, decreuses the lost through evaporation and transpiration. The special topography features make the runoff and groundwater change repeatedly. All above made it possible that the water has relative high utilization efficiency in certain extent. So to understand and grasp the mechanism of water cycle and transformation in Northwest China is very important to sustainable development of society economy system. Hexi Region is a typical arid area. The water of Hexi Region derived from the Qilian Mountains flows into desert plain regions and gradually dwindles and finally disappears. Surface water and groundwater transfer each other frequently. In the region the agriculture depends on irrigation. The study of water resources in Hexi Region has a large progress. Repeatedly transform between surface water and groundwater is found, which has a significance for water resources utilization. Because the water utilization efficiency is very high in Hexi Region, 133% on average in 1999. The utilization efficiency in the Shiyang River Basin is 211%, in the Heihe River Basin is 128%, but in the Shule River Basin is 61.4%, depending on geologic structure and water transformation process. Contrary by the high water utilization ratio and irrational utilization, these cause many environment problem that derived from ignorance to hydrological cycle process and mechanism. Illimitably reclaiming and irrational using water resources acutely decreases the downstream runoff, and descendes the groundwater level. The level has descended 3~5 m on average since 1950s. Especially, in the plains before mountains the descending trend of groundwater level is markedly. Thus less groundwater replenishes surface water. The water flowing into Minqin Basin has decreased from 5.7×10 8 m 3 ·a -1 to 1.5×10 8 m 3 ·a -1 since the 1950s, the groundwater level has descended to 15 m from 3 m in the 1950s, and the exploitable groundwater has decreased to 5.5×10 8~6.0×10 8 m 3·a -1 , resulting in many wellsprings disappearing and 0.644×10 4 hm 2 oleaster shelter belt vanishing. Moreover, 0.25×10 4 hm 2 of farmland is abandoned owing to desertification.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金重点项目 ( 4 97310 30 );; 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所知识创新工程项目 (CACX2 10 0 16 ) ;; 中国科学院知识创新工程项目 (KZCX1 10 0 3)资助
【CateGory Index】: P339
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