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Simulation of Water Resources Transformation in the Midstream Area of the Hei River Basin

CHEN Ren\|sheng,\ KANG Er\|si,\ YANG Jian\|ping,\ ZHANG Ji\|shi(Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China)   
Based on 1∶\{100 000\} geographical map, TM image, monthly precipitation and air temperature from 35 hydro\|meteorological stations, monthly evaporation from 21 stations and ground water level data from 97 wells during 1990 to 1992, this paper is intended to develop a distributed water balance model for the midstream area of the main branch of the Hei River. The research area covers 1\^795×104 km2, the basic unit size for computation is 930 m×930 m, and the time step is one month.\;The results of simulation show that, in the total study area during 1990 to 1992, the average precipitation is 193.1mm, the average inputted runoff to the area is 127\^8 mm, and the inputted deep ground water is 10.0mm. The total inputted water resource to the area is 330\^9 mm, the evapotranspiration is 294.5mm, the output runoff is 36\^3 mm, and the change of the water resource storage is 0\^1 mm. Thus the total outputted water resource is 330\^8 mm. The simulated total runoff amounts for 19\^564×108 m3 during 1990 to 1992, which is 0\^04×108 m3 more than the observed value. The most precipitation and 71.6% of the inputted runoff to the area are lost by evapotranspiration.\;The simulated results show that, the precipitation is relatively more in the mountain area or the area near the mountains, therefore the natural vegetation grows rather well there. On the other hand the precipitation in the gobi and desert area is very less. The type and distribution of natural vegetation are highly related to precipitation. Therefore, precipitation is the control factor affecting the growth of the natural vegetation in the midstream area of the Hei River Basin.\;The groundwater of the study area shows an increment during 1990 to 1992, but it increased During 1990 to 1991, while decreased in 1992. Generally, the groundwater level decreases in March, May and July, when the groundwater is pumped out for irrigation. The groundwater level increases in the region with high vegetation coverage, while decreases in the gobi and desert near the mountains and in the cities.\;Evapotranspiration is much more in the forests, high coverage meadow and farmland, while it is very less in the gobi and desert area, and it is the most in the oasis forest. For herbal vegetation, the evapotranspiration is proportional to the vegetation coverage.
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