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《Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology》 2004-05
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Wind Tunnel Experiment of Biological Crust Effect on Wind Erodibility of Sand Surface in Gurbantünggüt Desert, Xinjiang

WANG Xue-qin~(1),ZHANG Yuan-ming~(1),ZHANG Wei-min~(2),HAN Zhi-wen~(2) (1.Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, rümqi Xinjiang 830011, China; 2. Laboratory of Blown Sand Physics and Desert Environment, CAREERI, CAS, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China)  
Biological crusts extensively occur in Gurbantünggüt Desert and their distribution exhibits obvious selectivity to landform position. Moss crusts, lichen crusts, algal crusts and algal-lichen crusts are distributed in interridge, middle-lower parts of dunes, upper western slopes and middle eastern slopes, respectively. A certain crust has its unique species composition, thickness, surface features and mechanical resistance. Different crusts also have quite different wind erodibilities. The wind tunnel experiment demonstrated that the presence of biological crusts greatly increase the threshold friction velocity. Under 20~30 m·s~(-1) wind velocity no sand grain movement and wind erosion are observed on the four types of undisturbed crusts, while the threshold wind velocity on the bare sand surface is only 8.42 m·s~(-1). Under the same destruction percentage moss crust has the highest threshold velocity, followed by lichen crust, algal and algal-lichen crusts in succession. Wind velocity of ≥18 m·s~(-1) occurs frequently in Gurbantünggüt Desert, therefore any disturbances to natural ground surface may lead to sand moving, except for moss and lichen crust-covered surfaces with no more than 20% destruction. Wind erosion rate on bare sand surface is 0.09 g·m~(-2)·s~(-1) at 8.42 m s~(-1) wind velocity and it reaches (1 214.82) g·m~(-2)·s~(-1) at 25 m·s~(-1)wind velocity. Under the same wind velocity the wind erosion rates for the four crusts do not exceed 8.95% of that over the bare sand surface. Wind erosion rate greatly increases with the increase in destruction percentage and wind velocity. Moss and lichen crusts show a stronger resistance to wind erosion. When the destruction percentage is larger than 80% the wind erosion rates on algal and algal-lichen crusts are close to that of bare sand surface. According to the experiment results, human activity should not result in over 30% of destruction to crust cover, especially in spring and summer.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金重大研究计划项目(90202019);; 中国科学院"西部之光"人才培养计划项目资助
【CateGory Index】: S157.1
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