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《Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology》 2005-03
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(Differential) Frost Heave and Thaw Settlement in the Engineering Design and Construction of Oil Pipelines in Permafrost Regions: A Review

JIN Hui-jun 1 , YU Wen-bing 1 , CHEN You-chang 2 , GAO Xiao-fei 3 ,LI Fu-qing 4 , YAO Zhi-Xiang 5 (1.State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soils Engineering, CAREERI, CAS, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China; 2.Daqing Oilfields Engineering Design Technology Development Co., Daqing Heilongjiang 163712, China; 3.China Petroleum Pipeline Engineering Co., Langfang Hebei 065000, China; 4.Ningbo Engineering Co. Ltd., Sinopecl Group, Lanzhou Gansu 730060, China; 5.Corps 62217, Peoples Liberation Army, Golmud Qinghai 86000, China)  
With the rapid development of oil pipeline technologies, the length, diameter, construction difficulty, complicity and risks of pipelines in permafrost regions have been increasing steadily. Some key oil pipelines have to traverse extensive expanse of permafrost, which provide great challenges for engineering deign and construction. The key issues in the engineering stability of oil pipelines are frost heave and subsequent thaw settlement in permafrost foundations. Therefore, design and construction in cold regions have to carefully consider the impacts of topography and environments on frost heave and thaw settlement, and their impacts on the engineering foundations and the integrity of pipelines. The environmental movements since the 1960s have greatly influenced the design and construction of oil pipelines in cold regions, which further complicated the issue, but also facilitated the research programs on these issues. ;The success of the Trans-Alaska Oil Pipeline are attributed to the substantial investments in research and experiments, sufficient time for project evaluation, debating, and decision-making, as well as extensive participation of the public. The solutions of the permafrost problems include series of creative and innovative designs for reducing thaw settlement and environmental damages. The key scientific questions are focused on the impacts of the heated pipeline on the thermal and moisture regimes of permafrost, among which the most dangerous hazards would be potential differential thaw settlement and its impacts on pipeline deformation and integrity. The secondary hazards include the changes of micro-topography, drainage and vegetation after the construction of the pipeline, and the possible damages of the induced thaw settlement on pipeline stability and its ambient eco-environments. The 17-year observations on the temperatures, thaw penetration and surface thaw settlement within the right of way (ROW) regions and undisturbed sites along the Norman Wells Oil Pipeline indicate that the thaw penetration is still within the design predictions while the surface settlement in the trench in organic and ice-rich mineral soils has reached or exceeded design predictions in some locations. Along the Golmud to Lhasa ambient temperature product pipeline, frost heave and thaw settlement, as well as worn out, damaged or inadequate cathodic protection, and natural hazards such as strong earthquakes and flash floods have caused significant deformation of pipes and leaks many times during the past 28 years, necessitating a major renovation. Most of the frost heaving and thaw settlement occurred in ice-rich, fine-grained lacustrine sediments with shallow water table. ;The observations and unique long-term data sets on oil pipeline engineering have greatly increased the body of knowledge in geocryology. They have supported the modification of operations, mitigation of frost hazards, and formulation of emergency response measures. In these studies, permafrost researchers, cold regions and pipeline engineers and project decision-makers need to discover, fully understand and correctly forecast potential problems as soon as possible, through careful investigations, close cooperation and mutual trust. If designed properly and the construction closely followed the designed specifications, all these problems would not necessarily produce significant consequences.
【Fund】: 中国科学院百人计划项目“气候变化条件下 寒区线性工程基础稳定性研究——以海拉尔-大庆输油管道为工程实例”;; 国家自然科学基金项目(40401010)资助
【CateGory Index】: TE832
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