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《Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology》 2005-04
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Study on the Soil Physicochemical Characteristics of Biological Crusts on Sand-Dune Surface in Gurbantnggtt Desert, Xinjiang Region

LI Wei-hong~1,REN Tian-rui~2,ZHOU Zhi-bing~1,LIU Jia-zhen~1(1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, rmqi Xinjiang830011, China;2. Institute of Process and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012, China)  
Well-developed biological crusts cover the Gurbantnggtt Desert, the largest fixed and semi-fixed desert in China. The formation, species and distribution of the crusts are closely related to the environmental conditions of the position of sand dunes. According to field investigations and laboratory analyses, the relationship between physicochemical characteristics of soils and the distribution and development of the biological crusts on sand-dune surfaces in Gurbantnggtt Desert were analyzed. It is demonstrated that the medium sand and finer materials are dominant in the surface material composition in the study area. At the upper part of the sand-dune slopes, the proportion of medium sand is dominant, accounting for 37.44% of the total area; at the middle part of the dune slopes, the proportions of medium sand, fine sand and extremely fine sand are dominant; and at the lower part of the dune slopes and on the inter-dune lowlands, the proportions of fine sand and extremely fine sand are dominant. Soil moisture content is high in spring, and is obviously low but is stable in summer. Soil moisture content of the dune varies significantly with position and depth. At the upper part of the dune slopes, the highest soil moisture content occurs at a depth of 10~20 cm, but it occurs at depths of 5~10 cm and 2~5 cm at the middle and lower parts of the dune slopes, respectively. In the Gurbantnggtt Desert, the content of soluble salts in soil is low, with the lowest at the upper part of the dune slopes, and increasing significantly from the middle part to the lower part of the dune slopes and to the inter-dune lowlands. Soil organic matter content increases obviously from the middle part to the lower part of the dune slopes and to the inter-dune lowlands, where the highest value occurs in the topsoil of 0~5 cm, which is related to the environmental conditions and the activity of animalcules in the formation of microbiotic crusts. Depending on the physicochemical characteristics of soils and environment conditions of a sand dune, the development and distribution of biological crust vary with the type of the sand dunes. The microorganism crust mainly distributes on the surface of the drifting or semi-drifting sand dune. From the top to foot of a sand dune, there occurs the algae crust. From the lower slopes to the inter-dune area, the lichen crust, which is a dominant type of biological crusts in this desert, becomes rich and well developed. The inter-dune areas have the richest biological crusts that comprise of both lichen and moss species. The development and differentiation of the types of biological crusts are closely related to the physicochemical characteristics of soils and the stability of topsoil texture of the dunes.
【Fund】: 新疆自治区高技术项目(200415113);; 中国科学院知识创新工程项目资助
【CateGory Index】: S153;S154
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