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《Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology》 2007-02
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Major Ions in Ice Cores and Snowpits from the Himalayas:Temporal and Spatial Variations and Their Sources

GENG Zhi-xin1,HOU Shu-gui1,ZHANG Dong-qi1,2,KANG Shi-chang1,3,WANG Ye-tang1,LIU Ya-ping1(1.Key Laboratory of Cryosphere and Environment,CAREERI,CAS,Lanzhou Gansu 730000,China;2.Chinese Academy of MeteorologicalSciences,Beijing 100081,China;3.Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100085,China)  
In this paper,the major ion records from three snowpits(two from the East Rongbuk Glacier,situated at 28°01′ N,86°58′ E and 6 500 m a.s.l.,and one from Mount Qowowuyag Snowpit,situated at 28°03′ N,86°39′E and 5 700 m a.s.l.),two low ice cores(one from Nun Kun,situated 33°59′ N,75°58′ E and 4 908 m a.s.l.,and another from Dasuopu Glacier,situated at 28°33′ N,85°44 ′ E and 7 000 m a.s.l.),and an 80.36 m ice core from East Rongbuk Glacier(situated at 27°59′ N,86°55′ E and 6 450 m a.s.l)are analyzed.It is found that the major ion concentrations are characterized by seasonal change,mainly with high concentration in the non-monsoon seasons and low concentration in the summer monsoon seasons,occasionally with a high Cl-,Na+,and K+ concentrations.The unusual result is presumably due to the import of the regional dust in the summer season,like the dried sedimentation influence from the regional dust.The Na+,K+ and Cl-concentrations from the East Rongbuk Glacier snowpits and the Dasuopu ice core much higher than that from the Mount Qowowuyag Snowpit and the Nun Kun ice core,around several times much higher,which suggests that the Na+,K+ and Cl-concentrations are significantly affected by the local geography.Ammonium concentration of the Mount Qowowuyag Snowpit is much higher than that of other sonwpits and ice cores on the northern slopes.The conclusion can be drawn that the Himalayas notably sets as a barrier against the spread of the ammonium.But the Himalayas appear otherwise for the spread of the dust source ions(like Ca2+ and Mg2+).The air track simulated from the HYSPLIT_4 Model represents a fact that the major ions of the ice cores and snowpits in the winter and spring season in the Himalayas comes mainly from the Thar Desert in south Asia,as well as the dry and rainless plateau regions in west Asia,or more distant,from the Sahara Desert in west African,rather than from Central Asia and the arid and semi-arid Northwest of China as a general knowledge.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金项目(904110030121101);; 中国科学院“百人计划”项目;; 中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向性项目(KZCX3-SW-344)资助
【CateGory Index】: P343.6
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