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《Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology》 2007-03
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Preliminary Study of the Hydrological Processes in the Alpine Meadow and Permafrost Regions at the Headwaters of Heihe River

CHEN Ren-sheng1,KANG Er-si1,JI Xi-bin1,YANG Yong1,ZHANG Zhi-hui1,QING Wen-wu1,BAI Sheng-yun2,WANG Lian-dong2,KONG Qing-zhu2,LEI You-hong2,PEI Zong-xi2,WANG Jun2(1.Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou Gansu 730000,China;2.Yeniugou Meteorological Station,Qilian County,Qilian Qinghai 810400,China)  
In consideration of global warming and deteriorating environments,the research on hydrological processes in permafrost and seasonal frozen soil regions in North China and the Tibetan Plateau,especially in the mountainous regions of an inland river basin,is very important and necessary.The research site is Yeniugou(99°32.5′ E,38°27.5′ N,3 320 m a.s.l.),which is covered with alpine meadow,located in the middle reaches of the upper Heihe River,one of the long inland river in Northwest China.The averaged annual precipitation,yearly mean air temperature,averaged annual evaporation(%Φ%20) and the annual sunshine hours(1959_2004) is about 403.4 mm,3.1 ℃,1 275.9 mm and 2 701.7 h,respectively.In the recent 46 years,precipitation changed a little,evaporation(%Φ%20) and wind speed decreased with a %R%2 value of 0.38 and 0.62,respectively,while air temperature and sunshine hours all increased with a %R%2 value of 0.29 and 0.13,respectively.The averaged soil surface temperature is about 0.7 ℃ from 1980 to 2004,and the %R%2 value of its increasing trend is about 0.51.The ground that is flat is seasonally frozen in the Yeniugou Site,with an averaged maximum frozen depth about 3.0 m.The relationship between the soil surface temperature and the up or down depth of the seasonal frozen soil is quadratic polynomial,which means that there is a hysteresis of the soil temperature from the soil surface to the thawing or frozen depths.In the thawing season,there are two frozen layers in Yeniugou Site.When the thawing depth was close to the maximum frozen depth,the thawing process occurred from both the up and down surfaces of the frozen soil.A meteorological station was built at the Yeniugou Site in 1959.In order to analyze the hydrological processes of the research site,an ENVIS system has been installed in 2004,in which nearly all the meteorological variables,soil temperature and water contents of 7 layers were measured.Three runoff plots were built,with an area of 83.4 m2,187.6 m2 and 160.1 m2,respectively,in August,2005.The controlling depth is about 80 cm.Nine lysimeters with an inner diameter of 27 cm and a depth of 27 cm and six lysimeters with an inner diameter of 31.5 cm and a depth of 40 cm were installed in the runoff plots at the same time,to measure the evapotranspiration and to calculate the intending water balances.Of course,the soil properties of different soil layers were also measured.The Preliminary research results show that the alpine meadow holds up the surface runoff evidently in summer, and the surface runoff appears occasionally in these regions.The rain held up by the alpine meadow infiltrates soil slowly,resulting high water content in soil.Therefore,the alpine vegetation grows well and the underlying surface is wet,which forms a cold and wet microclimate in these regions.In this case,the ecological function of the alpine meadow is more than its hydrological effect.The COUP model could simulate the heat and water transfer processes in 1D-mode well in growth season,while in the other season,not.The reason is that the threshold temperature value,below which the soil is assumed to be completely frozen,except for a residual unfrozen amount of the COUP model,is a little higher,which therefore affects the whole water and heat transfer processes in the frozen soil.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金项目(40401012);; 中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向性项目(KZCX2-YW-301-3)资助
【CateGory Index】: P334;P642.14
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