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《Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology》 2007-04
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Natural Grasslands Degradation and Environmental Driving Factors in Qinghai Province

FU Yang1,LI Feng-xia1,ZHANG Guo-sheng2,YANG qiong3,ZENG Xiao-qing4(1.Qinghai Meteorological Science Institute,Xining Qinghai 810001,China;2. Qinghai Meteorology Bureau,Xining Qinghai 810001,China;3.Life and Geographical Science College of Qinghai Normal University,Xining Qinghai 810001,China;4.College of Atmospheric Sciences,Lanzhou University,Lanzhou Gansu 730000,China)  
The Three River Sources areas and the regions around Qinghai Lake are the two important ecosystems in Qinghai Province.Based on the typical vegetation monitoring data and surface meteorological data from 1987 to 2004,combining with the remote sensing data of satellite NOAA/AVHRR and investigated data,the main degenerative characteristics of natural grasslands are analyzed.The main characteristics are: degenerative pasturelands area with moderate severity increasing with a speed of 200,000 square kilometers per annum in average;the area with productivity less than 750 kilogram per square kilometer accounting for 26.99% of the total area of the province.Output and height of grass in the Three River Sources areas decrease with the tendencies of 4.48 to 16.48 kilogram per annum and 0.16 to 0.80 centimeter per annum.The linear descending rate of dominant plant numbers are 11 and 16 plants per annum,respectively. The growth percentage of Cyperaceae kind's pasture in anthesis and seed autumn period decreases 25% to 50%.Pasture output and height in the regions around Qinghai Lake decrease with a speed of 3.05 to 4.64 kilogram per annum and 0.75 to 1.28 centimeter per annum;the proportion of Poaceae as an eminent representative kind decreases 1% to 3%.The descending rate of temperate steppe and temperate desert,which lie in south of the Qinghai Lake,are 0.25% and 0.38% per annum,respectively.According to the above mentioned,the degeneration of pasture in Qinghai Province might attribute mainly to environmental controlling mechanisms of nature and human activity.In this paper,the grassland degenerative mechanism and eco-process degeneration are analyzed.On one hand,among all the natural controlling factors,the tendency of drying and warming is the first important factor for the degeneration.It affects the growing season,pasture output and the community structure of pasture.Besides,pasture degeneration is aggravated owing to the increase of various extreme weather phenomena and climatic disasters since the 1990s;on the other hand,human controlling factors,such as overloading of livestock,population increasing and uneven grazing,further aggravate eco-functional degeneration of nature pastureland.
【Fund】: 科技部科研院所社会公益研究专项(2005DIB3J109);; 中国气象局气象新技术推广项目(CMATG2005M43)资助
【CateGory Index】: S812
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