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《Acta Zoologica Sinica》 1959-02
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NORMAL STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF WILD AND DOMESTICATED GOLDFISH,CARASSIUS AURATUS

(Laboratory of Genetics, Zoological Institute, Academia Sinica)  
The development of the wild and domesticated goldfish, Carassius auratus, was studied in the constant temperature bath maintained at 24.5°±1℃. On the basis of morphological and physiological characters, the developmental period, from the fertilization to the appearance of scales on the larval fish, was divided into 44 stages. An average of 467 hours was needed for completing the entire development.The first cleavage appeared one hour after fertilization and the cleavage was completed in 3 hours, The end of blastulation was at 6 hours and hereafter the germ ring appeared. The differentiation of the brain occurred 15 hours after fertilization, heart heating started at 26 hours, hatching took place 65 hours after fertilization, and free swimming started 104 hours after fertilization.No clear-cut difference was found in the developmental stages between the wild and the different varieties of the domeslicated goldfish.The differentiation of "paired caudal-fin" was observed before hatching of the embryo, during the formation of the caudal-fin membrane. And the differentiation of "paired anal fin" was observed during hatching, when the anal fin membrane first appeared. The transparent-scale1 and pearl-scale were also differentiated when the scales were first formed.With respect to certain hereditary characters, such as body shape and skin color, the fish larvae are first spindle-shaped and grey-colored, as is the case with the wild type, and then gradually become shortened in shape and transparent or mottled in the color pattern of the skin.The embryonic stages of the development of Carassius auraius were compared with those of Fuadulus heteroditus, and certain important differences were noted.
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