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《Acta Zoologica Sinica》 1965-04
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FOODS AND FOOD BASES OF THE MUSKRAT, ONDATRA ZIBETH1CA LINNAEUS

CHU CHING AND YIEN CHIH-TANG(Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica)  
The present report is a part of our studies on the ecology of the muskrat in eight provinces of China during 1960-1963. This paper deals with the food habits and foods of this species. Stress has been laid on food bases and their probable influence as a limiting factor on the numbers of this fur-bearing rodent. Direct observations and feeding experiments have been used. Results obtained are as follows:(1) The muskrats' feeding activity appears to reach its maximum in the mornings and evenings. The frequency of their feeding activities at 5:00-8:00 is found to be 76% of their morning activities and at 17:00-20:00 66% of their evening activities. The ranges of their feeding activities are found to be approximately the same as their home ranges. Adult muskrats in captivity are recorded to require on an average about 695 g of aquatic vegetation a day.(2) Based on feeding experiments and direct observations of captive muskrats, the plant foods occupy 93.4% of the total amount of 107 kinds of foods taken, while the animal foods only 6.6%. The plant foods include Phragmities commums Trin., Typha sp., Acorus sp., Zizania ceduciflora (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz., Brasenia Schreberi Gmel., Nym-phodes peltatum Kuntze, Nuphar pumilum Smith, Potamogeton spp., Deyenxia lange-dorffii (Link) Kunth, Ceratophyllum demersum Linn., given in a subsequence of importance (Table 2). All of these plants are found to be widely distributed in the country. Crops and fishes are taken only in small quantities. There are some seasonal differences in the food habits of the muskrat. The use of the different parts of the plants also varies with seasons (Table 3).(3) In the ecological investigations on the relationships between the food bases of the animal and its numbers, we compared the utilization of food bases by the animal in different densities. Results obtained indicate that in general, in a density of 11-13 families per acre the food bases are maintained normally; however, food bases begin to show signs of destruction, when the density of the muskrats readies to more than 16 families per acre. It is, therefore, considered desirable to control the numbers of the muskrats within reasonable limits not only for maintaining their food bases in a state of equilibrium, but also for habitat improvements in the wildlife management. We also assert that the food base is one of the characteristics of the food habits of animals at the population level.
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【References】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 2 Hits
1 YAN Zhitang ZHONG Mingming (Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Academic Sinica);THE PREDICTION TO FLUCTUATIONS IN HOME MOUSE (Mus musculus) POPULATION AND STUDIES OF MECHANISM[J];Acta Theriologica Sinica;1984-02
2 XIA Wuping (Northwest Plateau Institute o/ Biology, Academic Sinica);PROGRESS IN MAMMALIAN ECOLOGY IN CHINA[J];Acta Theriologica Sinica;1984-03
【Citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 2 Hits
1 CHU CHING AND YIEN CHIH-TANC(Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica);BURROWS, LODGES AND HOME RANGES OF THE MUSKRAT, ONDATRA ZIBETHICA LINNE[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1962-04
2 CHU CHING AND YIEN CHIH-TANG(Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica);HABITATS AND DENSITIES OF THE MUSKRAT, ONDATRA ZIBETHICA LINNAEUS[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1964-03
【Co-citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 1 Hits
1 XIA Wuping (Northwest Plateau Institute o/ Biology, Academic Sinica);PROGRESS IN MAMMALIAN ECOLOGY IN CHINA[J];Acta Theriologica Sinica;1984-03
【Co-references】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 HSIA WU-P'ING (Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica) LI CHING-TAO (Institute of Forestry and Soil, Academia Sinica);A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE DIFFERENT TYPESOF OLD CUT-OVER LANDS IN NORTHEASTERNCHINA AND THEIR RODENT FAUNA[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1957-04
2 HSIA WU-PIN(Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica);ON THE CHANGING TENDENCIES OF THE RODENT POPULATION IN THE RECENT CUT-OVER LAND AT DAILING, NORTHEAST CHINA[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1958-04
3 T. H. SHAW, W. P. HSIA, and T. C. LEE (InstiMe of Zoology, Acatemia Sinica);AGE AND GROWTH IN THE RED-BACKED VOLE,CLETHRIONOMYS RUTILUS,FROM DAILING,LESSERKHINGAN MOUNTAINS[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1959-01
4 T. H. Lo, W. P. HSIA, and T. H. SHAW(Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica);SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE SMALL MAMMALS OF ETULI HO,INNER MONGOLIA[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1959-01
5 HSIA WU-PING (Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica, Peking);ON THE OPULATION AND HOME RANGE OF THE GREATER WOOD MOUS, APODEMUS SPECIOSUS PENINSULAE THOMAS[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1961-Z1
6 ;Faunal Succession of Rodents in the Human Residences in the Deforested Regions of the Great Khin-an Mountains[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1962-02
7 ;A Method of Estimating the Number of the Musk Deer[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1962-03
8 CHU CHING AND YIEN CHIH-TANC(Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica);BURROWS, LODGES AND HOME RANGES OF THE MUSKRAT, ONDATRA ZIBETHICA LINNE[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1962-04
9 HSIA WU-PINC & SUN CHUNG-LU (institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica);ON THE RELATIVE FATNESS OF THE RED-BACKED VOLE, CLETHRIONOMYS RUTILUS PALLAS[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1963-01
10 LUO TSE-HSUN(Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica, Peking);AGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE STRIPED FIELD MOUSE POPULATIONS IN THE TA-KHINGAN MOUNTAINS AND SANKIANG PLAINS OF NORTHEASTERN CHINA[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1963-03
【Secondary References】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 ZHANG ZHIBIN ZHU JING YANG HEFANG HAO SIIOUSHEN WANG SHUQING(Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica Beijing.);MODELLING OF SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF CRICETULUS TRITON POPULATIONS IN HEBEI, CHINA[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1990-02
2 Wu Delin Deng Xiangfu Xu Yao (Kunming Institute of Ecology, Academia Sinica);STANDING CROPS OF ELEMENTS AMD ATOMIC RATIOS FOR A SMALL MAMMAL COMMUNITY CAPTURED BY SNAP-TRAPS IN THE AILAO MOUNTAINS[J];Zoological Research;1991-02
3 LONG Gui-xing1,LUO Wen-zhong1,LIU Qiong-hua2(1.Guizhou Dafang Plant Protection Station,Dafang,Guizhou 551600;2.Guizhou Dafang Seed Station,Dafang,Guizhou 551600,China);The Population Composition and Prediction of Rodents in Dafang County[J];Guizhou Agricultural Sciences;2009-06
4 ZHANG Hong mao (Instiute of Rare Animals and Plants Sichuan Teachers' College,Nanchong 637002,China);Development and Progress of Research on Mammal Community Ecology in China[J];JOURNAL OF SICHUAN TEACHERS COLLEGE(NATURAL SCIENCE);2000-01
5 ZHANG Hong-mao~(1,2),HU Jin-chu~2 (1.College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agriculture University,Wuhan ,Hubei Province 430070; 2. Institute of Rare Animals and Plants, China West Normal University);Habitat Selection of Moschus chrysogaster sifanicus in Summer in Northwestern Plateau, Sichuan Province[J];Sichuan Journal of Zoology;2004-02
6 YANG Zai-Xue1,ZHENG Yuan-Li1,GUO Yong-Wang2,JIN Xing3,LIU Jin3(1.Yuqing Plant Protection Station,Yuqing 564400,China;2.National Agro-tech Extensions and Service Center,Beijing 100026,China;3.Guizhou Plant Protection Station,Guiyang 550001,China);Morphological features and the ecological characters of population of Eothenomys melanogaster[J];Journal of Mountain Agriculture and Biology;2009-03
7 YAN Zhitang ZHONG Mingming (Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Academic Sinica);ANALYSIS OF THE POPULATION DYNAMICS OF GRAY HAMSTER (CRICETULUS MIGRATORIUS)AND HOUSE MOUSE(MUS MUSCULUS) IN XINJIANG FROM 1968-1983[J];Acta Theriologica Sinica;1984-04
8 YAN Zhitang ZHONG Mingming (Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Academia Sinica);STUDIES ON POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF FERAL MUS MUSCULUS[J];Acta Theriologica Sinica;1985-03
9 JIANG Zhigang (Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Academia Sinica);THE JACKKNIFE ESTIMATION OF THE NICHE BREADTH AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE NICHE STUDY OF PLATEAU PIKA(OCHOTONA CURZONIAE)[J];Acta Theriologica Sinica;1987-01
10 HONG Chaochang (Anti-epidemic Station of Fujian Province) YAN Gaolin ZHENG Bendong (Anti-epidemic Station oj Ningde Prefecture) (Anti-epidemic Station oj Gutian County);THE POPULATION DYNAMICS AND PREDICTION TO NUMBERS OF RATTUS RATTOIDES[J];Acta Theriologica Sinica;1989-02
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