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《Acta Zoologica Sinica》 1991-02
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FISH-FAUNA AND ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL DIVISION OF HEXI-ALASHAN REGION, THE NORTHWEST CHINA

ZHAO TIE-QIAO (Shaanxi Institute of Zoology, Xian)  
As an independent hydrological unit, Hexi-Alashan Region of the northwestern China is an area of more than 500000 square kilometers and contains principally three separated inland river systems, namely, Shule River, Ruoshui River anl Shiyang River. There are fishes of 12 species/subspecies, 4 genera and 2 families (Cobitididae and Cyprinidae) naturally distributed in the region and 7 in 12 are endemio. Ten species of scaleless noemacheilini fishes and Gymnocyprinus eckloni chilianensis characterize the features of fish-fauna of the region shared with Qinghai-Tibet Plateau or High Central Asia: simpler faunal components, fishes Schizothoracinae and scaleless Noemacheilinae in dominant position rare pedatory fishes, specialized to adapt to the harsh conditions of water bodies with high altitude and low temperature, and fish taxa differentiated due to local and limited distribution. The distribution of Carassius auratus in the region is a feature of the region's position at the margin of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the border of the arid inland region of Central Asia. The fish distribution also displays horizental and vertical geographical differences in the region.In phenetic overall similarities, the descrimination and the cluster analysis of average faunal resemblance (AFR) indicate these three river systems male up an independent ichthyogeographical unit, with Ruoshui River as its center and most closely related to Qaidam Basin faunally. PAE and PAUP give two area cladograms basically consistent and, basing on the vicariance theory, reveal the fish geographical relationships as following: Shule River and Ruoshui River, they and Shiyang River, Hexi Area and Qaidam (as well as Hequ, i.d., the Upper Huang He River), anl all of them and Kuku Nut Lake are a series of sister area groups, or in other words, they are all in a large monophyletic area group. While Longzhong and Hetao, and they and Inner Mongolia Plateau are also sister area groups and all of them make up other large monophyletic area group. Then these two large area groups are sister area groups and make up a monophyletic area group at a higher level.Furthermore, the evolutionary history of the fish fauna of Hexi-Alashan Region is recounted in the light of the phylogeny of the fishes and the data of the geological history of the area. It is elucidated that mainly the tectonic movements, especially the Himalaya Movement, and the climatic changes since Tritary Period have resulted in the area vicariance of HexiAlashan Region and the isolation of the river systems, the long-termed isolation has caused the differentiation of the fish taxa and thus the modern pattern of fishes distribution is determined in this region.Then the problem of the zoogeographical division is considered for the fresh-water fishes distributed in the Northwest and Hequ-Qilian Province is suggested to enlarge and replace Maqu Province, which is situated in the northeastern part of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, to the north of Bayan Khara Mountains and East Kunlun Mountains, including four sub-divisions (Biogeographical Prefectures) Hexi-Alashan, Qaidam, Hequ, and Kuku Nur Lake, and suboradinating to High Central Asia Region or he Northwest Plateau or West China Region. Finally, it is pointed that the approach PAE is one merit to be applied to the research on biogeographical problems in China.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金第3860837号
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