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《Acta Zoologica Sinica》 1992-02
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PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS OF PAREINAE (SERPENTS) OF SOUTHEASTERN ASIA AND ADJACENT ISLANDS WITH RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IT AND THE GEOLOGY CHANGES

RAO DING-QI YANG DA-TONG(Kunming Institute of Zoology, Accdc, oa Somoca, Kunming 650107)  
Pareinae of colubridae is distributed in southeastern Asia and adjacent island from 10°S-35°N and 80°-125°E. It is the only group that has blunt snout, no mental groove and no teeth on the anterior part of maxillary. There were 2 genera and 16 species in the original references, namely Aplopeltura 1 species and Pareas 15 species. But in this research, we found that P. kuangtungensis and P. yunnanensis, which had ever been considered as the synonyms of P. chinensis, were valid species for their characters of maxillary teeth, length of hemipenis, ect.; P. niger was the synonym of P. yunnanensis; P. komaii from Taiwan and P. iwasakii from the Liu-Kiu islands were also valid species.P. laevis and P. malaccanus, which are distributed mainly in the Greater Sunda Islands, should be seperated as a new genus Internatus since they have one pre-chinshield and only 2 pairs of chinshields and so on.So far we found 1 genus, and confirmed 2 genera and 18 valid species:( 1 ) A. boa; (2)I. laevis; ( 3 ) I. malaccanus;( 4 ) P. margaritophorus; ( 5 ) P. macularius; ( 6 ) P. carinatus;(7) P.nuchalis; (8 ) P. monticola; ( 9 ) P. vertebralis;(10) P. boulengeri; (11) P. stanleyi; (12) P. chinensis;(13) P. formosensis; (14) P. hamptoni; (15) P. kuangtungensis;(16) P. yunnanensis; (17) P.komaii; (18) P. iwasakii.In order to study the relationships of the genera of Pareinae, 11 characters were selected with circumspection, and the out-group analysis and cladogram were adapted. The results are as follows (fig. 6):(1) Pareas, Internatus and Aplopeltura all showed the derived states of character 1, 2, 3 and 4. It indicates that they have a common origin, and Pareinae is a typically monophyly group;(2) Pareas and Internatus have the derived sfate of C.5, the relationship of them is closer. They probably have a common ancester, and it has an earlier ancester with Aplopeltura.(3) Pareas has only 6 derived states all together, while Internatus and Aplopeltura respectively have 7 and 8 derived states, so Pareas is primitive, Aplopeltura is more derived than Internatus, The common derived states of Internatus and Aplopeltura are fewer than those between each of them and Pareas, so the relationship of them is far. Since Pareas is primitive, Internatus and Aplopeltura probably originated respectively from the ancester of it during different times and derived in different direction.(4) The distribution of the 3 genera reflects their relationships: Pareas is distributed main- ly in the mainland, it is primitive; Internatus is near to the mainland and closer to Pareas than Aplopeltura in evolution; Aplopeliura is far away from the mainland, which is the most derived among 3 genera. Furthermore, it indicates that Internatus and Aplopeliura are respectively seperated from ancesters of Pareas in different times of geology.Internatus and Aplopeliura which are distributed mainly in the islands are more derived than Pareas which is chiefly in mainland as Fig.4 shows. According to the comparisons of other genera and species that are distributed in the islands, we also see that the genera, like the sub-famlies and families that distribute in the islands, are the same as those in the mainland (here including Malaya), although the species which are distributed in the islands are much different from those in the mainland; also the species in the different islands of the Greater Sunda are the same, they are fewer in quantity and more derived in morphology; and show the step-distribution that the quantity of species in the islands become decreased gradually with the island more and more distantly separated from the mainland. This means that the island-groups were migrated from the mainland not far long ago in the geology age.The Ice-Ages of Quaternary were probablely the causes and conditions of migration of the species from the mainland to the islands. The cold climates in the northern area and highlands and the relativly warm weather in the south was one aspact of the causes; meanwhile, the decrease of sealevel was the most important. During the ice-ages, the islands
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