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《Acta Zoologica Sinica》 2004-02
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Mitochondrial DNA diversity and preliminary biogeographic inference of the evolutionary history of the black-spotted pond frog Rana nigromaculata populations in China

YANG Yu-Hui1, ZHANG De-Xing 1**, LI Yi-Ming2, JI Ya-Jie1 1.State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080,China 2.Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China  
Among the more than 300 amphibian species(subspecies) found in China, the black-spotted pond frog Rana nigromaculata is one of the most widely distributed species in temperate Eastern Asia, ranging across almost the whole of temperate East China, Korea, and Japan and possibly in Mongolia-Xinjiang and Qinghai-Tibet regions. So far little is known about the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of R. nigromaculata. Important aspects need to be addressed for establishing more effective management strategies in conservation and protection. In this study, eight populations were sampled across the range of R. nigromaculata in China(Fig.1, Table 1). In total, 704 bp of the mitochondrial Cyt b gene were sequenced in 257 individuals, and 79 mitotypes indentified(Table 2, Figs.2,3). Sequence divergence among mitotypes varies between 0.14%-3.94%. Mitochondrial DNA diversity was higher in populations at the middle latitude, i.e. the central area of the present distribution range of the frog, than at the north and south edges of their distribution range(r2=0.722 for H, r2=0.7585 for π, Fig.5A). A significant negative correlation existed between the estimated level of gene flow(Nm) and the geographic distance among populations(r2=0.245,P=0.007, Fig.5B). Therefore, population differentiation occurred as a consequence of isolation-by-distance(IBD). A unimodal mismatch distribution of the mitotypes has been observed(Fig.4), and selective neutrality tests of the Tajima's D(-1.407,P=0.046) and Fs(-24.322,P=0.001) are all significantly negative. The data suggest that there might be a population expansion of the R. nigromaculata about 10 3000- 226 000?years ago, a time corresponding to the last interglaciation stage. Our data suggest that during the Pleistocene the distribution range of R. nigromaculata fluctuated latitudinally, in response to climatic change. At glacial stages(or cold periods), the withdraw frogs from the north and moved to refugial places in the south(e.g. in SC, HB, FJ, Fig.1 Table 1); during warm periods after glaciations(or cold periods), they dispersed northward from the south, recolonized the high latitude regions and diverged genetically there. At any time, both the north and south fringes of the distribution area should not be the most favorable habitats for the frog. This has resulted in the distribution pattern of genetic diversity of R. nigromaculata populations observed today in China. The pattern observed in this frog should be indicative of what happened generally during the glacial cycles to other organisms that are adapted to temperate regions in China. Therefore, the central areas of the distribution ranges of temperate-adapted animals should have acted as effective buffering zones for maintaining a high level of genetic diversity during glacial periods.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金 (No .3 0 3 70 2 16);; 中国科学院“百人计划”资助项目~~
【CateGory Index】: Q958
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