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《Acta Zoologica Sinica》 2007-02
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Structure of retina and visual characteristics of the half-smooth tongue-sole Cynoglossus semilaevis Günter

MA Ai-Jun~1** , WANG Xin-An~1,2 , ZHUANG Zhi-Meng~1, ZHANG Xiu-Mei~2,ZHANG Li-Jing~11.Key Lab.for Sustainable Utilization of Marine Fishery Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Science, Qingdao 266071, Shandong, China2.Fishery College, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong, China  
The structure of the retina and visual characteristics of half-smooth tongue-sole Cynoglossus semilaevis from newly-hatched larvae to 50-day old juveniles, and at 50 mm total length (TL) young fishes, were examined. The main results obtained are as follows. (1)At 3 days from hatching, the eyes are deeply pigmented and the visual system is morphologically complete. At 15 days larvae, the retinomotor responses do not appear obviously. At 25 days, the retina of C.semilaevis can be adapted normally to sunlight, however, at 43 days,the function does not exist.(2) The retina of C.semilaevis in larva consists mainly of single cones (SC) as sensory cells with a high density; the rods and twin cones (TC) appear rather late. Owing to the ellipsoid of cone of C.semilaevis is spindly, when single cones are inosculated to twin cones,single cones are not well-inosculated,though twin cones could be seen on the cross-section the retina of C.semilaevis, it is difficult to see twin cones on the tangential section the retina of C.semilaevis. Over the whole range of development, the density of cones and ganglion cells decreases while the density of the rods increases correspondingly, after 31 days, the density of the rods increases remarkably. At the same time, the ratio of nuclei of the outer nuclear layer to ganglion cells increases distinctly. Also, the degree of the assembled meshwork is increased markedly. The data concerned shows that the structure of the retina apparently changes in the stage between 20-and 31-day old juveniles, which is a transitional period in which its visual characteristics changes obviously. It is revealed that the changes of visual structure of C.semilaevis are adapted to the ecological shift from pelagic to benthic habitats. (3)The structure of the internal nuclear layer of C.semilaevis is highly peculiar: a 50 mm C.semilaevis has only a layer of horizontal cells, its sensitization system is underdeveloped. In addition,it has 4-5 layers of bipolar cells and amacrine cells.However, it is difficult to distinguish the two kinds of cells. Obviously, the decrease in layers of the internal nuclear layer as well as bipolar,amacrine and ganglion cells, which are not well-differented, showing that the retina of C.semilaevis is not sensitive to light. (4) The acuity of larvae in the pelagic stage is comparatively high,vision play a very significant role in feeding behavior. After benthic habitats, both the acuity and the light sensitivity are weak, therefore, vision does not have an important effect on feeding behavior.
【Fund】: 国家“863”项目(2005AA603110);; 青岛市自然基金项目(05-2-JC-59)共同资助~~
【CateGory Index】: Q954;S917.4
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