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《Acta Scicentiarum Naturalum Universitis Pekinesis》 1996-01
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On Future Development of Geographic Science(GS)

MA Ainai (The Institute of RS and GIS,Peking University,Beijing,100871)  
The crisis-ridden has done in the geography recently For example,some Universities had renamed their Department of Geography which named Urbanand Environmental Science,Land and Ocean Science,Resource and EnvironmentalScience and so on.To be sure,Meteorology,Hydrology,Pedology,QnaternaryGeology,Land Science,Ecology,Environmemtal Science,Regional Economics andSustainable Development Work have made parts or overall to cover Geography onceby once.Even Historical Geography has been belonged to History.Geography hasfaced to disintegration.In the world,Europe and America,their geography leidparticular stress on humanities.Some Universities close down the Department ofGeography in the United States.The Preceding USSR,geography leid particularstress on nature which had influenced in our country deeply.Recently Russian ge-ography is going to find new way.For example,it is called constructional geogra-phy.Author deem to recognize an object of geographical science again with recenthalf century geographic developmental history to be necessary.The crisis-ridden al- so has brought an opportunity for us.This paper put forward a system of geo-graphic science.The core of geographic science is"Man and Earth"relationshipthat is the"Man and Earth"System. An outline for this system is: 1.An object of GS and it's threshold of time and space This paragraph put forward a"Man and Earth"system which is an megalocom-plex variations and open system.And separate geography three parts:ancient geog-raphy,historical geography,and modern geographic science. 2.Ancient geography Human was controlled by nature phenornena.There is an ancient physicalgeographical system which including ancient geomorphology,Quaternary sedimen-tary,ancient pedologic geography,ancient biologic geography,ancient hydrologicgeography,ancient climatology and ancient humanity. 3.Historical geography Since human was controlled by nature phenomena to become that human hascontrolled nature phenomena.There is a historic geographic system which includ-ing historical synthetic geography,historical partial geography and historical re-gional geography and so on. 4.Modern geographical science system There are three levels. In the top is geographical basic science which includingtheoretical geography,partial and regional geography.The second level is geo-graphical technology which including observational geography,surveying geogra-phy,experimental geography,metrological geography and geographic informationscience.In the bottom level is geographic engineering which including environmentengineering,ecosystem,land management,population controlled,urbans andtowns construction,regional development,disasters monitoring and the globechange monitoring. 5.Sustainable development(SD)system for flourshing together of"Man andEarth" There are agriculture and mariculture,light and heavy industry,and the thirdand information industry in the sustainable development.
【CateGory Index】: K90
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