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Near field Optics and Near field Microscopy: the Basic Principles and Their Applications

ZHU\ Xing (Department of Physics, Peking University and State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Beijing, 100871)  
The revolutionary development of scanning probe microscopy has made the imaging of objects at molecular or atomic level possible. With the discoveries of new physical phenomena at low dimensions, the near field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) jointed the family after the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM). Based on the common principles of non radiating field, NSOM opened the possibilities of ultra high optical resolution which overcomes the Rayleigh diffraction limit, and the optical spectroscopy at the nanometer scale. This review article discusses the basic principles of near field optics, the relationship between non radiative detection and high spatial resolution, optical confinement on small objects, the importance of evanescent wave as well as the methods to obtain the near field information. The NSOM related instrumentation is introduced. The application of NSOM in super resolution optical imaging; high density data storage; near field spectroscopy on single molecules, quantum devices, and the combination of NSOM with ultra fast optical transient phenomena are summarized.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金
【CateGory Index】: O433.1
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