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Sources Identification of Heavy Metals in Urban Soil of Changchun Based on Principal Component Analysis

YANG Zhong-ping1,2,LU Wen-xi2,LIU Xin-rong1,XIN Xin2(1.College of Civil Engineering,Chongqing University,Chongqing 400045,China;2.College of Environment and Resources,Jilin University,Changchun 130026,China)  
An extensive survey was conducted to evaluate the potential sources(PAS) of heavy metals in the urban environment of Changchun,China.There were 352 samples collected with a sampling density 3-5 composite top soil samples(0~20 deep) per km2.X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy(XRF),Atomic Fluorescence Spectrophotometry(AFS)and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry(GF-AAS) were used to analyze Cu,Pb,Zn,Cr,As,Hg and Cd concentration of soil,respectively.The results indicated that the mean concentration of As,Cd,Cr,Cu,Hg,Pb and Zn in the urban top soil of Changchun was 12.5,0.132,66.0,29.4,0.118,35.4 and 90.0 mg/kg,respectively,which were significant higher than the background value of Changchun top soil;meanwhile,which also showed that the top soil in Changchun was polluted.The results of Principal Component Analysis(PCA) showed that the heavy metals in the urban top soil of Changchun came from different sources: Pb and Zn mainly originated from traffic contamination while Cr was still mainly controlled by natural factors,and originated from natural sources;coal burning in industries was the main source of As and Hg;industrial source and the application of Cd-containing phosphate fertilizers may be an important source of Cd in the top soil.
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