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WANG Xian-jia, XIAO Wen ( College of Hydraulic and Electric Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China; Water Resources Bureau of Shenzhen City, Shenzhen 518001, China)  
With the increasing awareness of sustainable development, the utilization sustainablity of water resource is becoming to the major concern in water resource science. Water resources possess the distinctive characteristics from other resources. Based on the theory of sustainable de- velopment, this paper analyses the basic characteristics of water resources, including the natural, social and economic ones. The distinctive characteristics imply that sustainable utilization of water resources has to obey to the principles, which reveal the basic laws of natural, social and economic changes in the utilization of water resources. In the paper, the basic principles, including whole, coorination, fairness and optimality principles, are revealed and analysed in terms of the theory of system theory, choice theory, welfare economics, resource allocation and market economics. The principles provide the correct line of guidance and programing ideas for the implement of utilization sustainable of water resources.
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