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EVOLUTION OF SOIL FERTILITY IN RELATION TO ITS QUALITY IN PADDY FIELD OF THE TAIHU LAKE AREA

XU Qi (Institute of Soil Sciences,The Chinese Academy of Sciences,Nanjing 210008,China)  
The Taihu Lake area is an ancient agricultural zone in China.Ancestors began the rice cultivation in this area as early as about 6 to 7 thousand years ago.With the soil build up practice over centuries,the soil fertility has evolved in combination with the development of crop rotation systems being from fallow system to water logging field,to the alternation of upland and paddy field,and to the triple planting system.The basic soil fertility has been growing steadily,and so the yield of rice and wheat in per unit area.During several thousand years cultivation,fertilization,together with land leveling and many other human activities,the soil in the paddy field has been ameliorated from its original earth into five types of soil.In spite of the various degrees in productivity,these types of soil have been cultivated as an alternation of paddy field and upland farmland with relatively high and stable yields.It,however,has to be mentioned that this has been a result of artificially directed cultivation in this area.The soil quality,on the other hand,is determined by its feritility,and the basic fertility of soil is the key factor influencing the agricultural production.It is thus considered that the assessment of soil quality should be the priority in soil research.With the development of industry,the soil pollution and its consequent effect in agricultural products should however also be considered as an important factor in the integrated evaluation system of soil quality.
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