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《Acta Sedimentologica Sinica》 1983-01
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STRUCTURAL LAKE DELTAS AND GIL-GAS DISTRIBUTION

Wu Chungyu (Scientific Research Irstitute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing)  
or bird-foot shapes, covers a total area more than 20000 square kilometers. The distributary channel is composed of mainly fine-medium grained sand. Mouth bar is mainly composed of fine sand and silt. Daqing delta extended far into the deep water area, has transgressional dark shale under and over, and most sandstones of high porosity and permeability, so it has good source, reservoir and seal rocks, which are very favorable for oil-gas accumulation. Short-axis steep slope deltas are mainly found in Bohai Bay Basin such as the long narrow V-type rift-valley West Liaohe Depression. Deltas located on both east and west short-axis steep slopes are small for single lobes, but many lobes appear in parallel and inter-connect laterally to form extensive sandy belts near central deep water area, are also richly oil-gas accumulated. Another short-axis steep-slope delta is the Shengtuo delta in the dust-pan shaped lake basin of Dongying Depression. Short-axis steep slope deltas consist of materials much coarser than those of long-axis deltas. Short-axis gentle-slope deltas also appear on the dustpan shaped down-faulted lake basin, such as the south gentle slope of short-axis of Dongying Depression. These deltas are characterized by large srea, thin layer, fine grain, low porosity and permeability and rather far away from deep water area, so they are less advantageous for oil-gas accumulation. In Dongying Depression, there are also long-axis deltas such as the Dongxin delta and Goaqing delta, but they are also less advantageous than the Shengtuo de'ta. The distributional properties of deltas in structural lake basins can be summarized as fellows: ( 1 ) Long-axis deltas are most prominently developed in subsided lake basins; ( 2 ) Short-axis deltas are more prominently developed in narrow elongated down-faulted lake basins; ( 3 ) Oil-gas accumulation is more prominent in deltas close to deep water areas. Ⅲ. Cyclicity Deltas can be classified, according to the number of overlaping lobes in vertical sections, into polycyclic deltas and monocyclic or few-cyclic deltas. A ploycyclic delta is a delta complex composed of many overlaping delta lobes and so consists of a number of cycles. For example, the Shengtuo delta complex has a total thickness of 500 meters and 11 cycles, Daqing delta 500-600 meters, 38 cycles. Recent investigations on oil-gas migration show that the thickness of oil source rock for effective upward migration is about 15 meters and downward migration about 5 meters.Besides, too thick a sandlayer may not be fully filled. So, neither the source rocks nor reservoir rocks are necessary to be very thick, but frequent alternations of moderate thick layers are of most importance. So the Daqing delta and Shengtuo delta are very advantageous for oil-gas migration and accumulation. On the other hand,monocyclic delta such as Gaoqing delta is less advantageous. However, excess number of cycles and extra small thickness of single layer will cause the oil-gas to disperse widely and is disadvantageous. IV. Sandbodies associated with structural lake deltas Shoreward, deltas may associate with meander river channel sandbodics as for long-axis deltas and short-axis gentle slope deltas; or associated with alluvial fans as for short-axis steep slope deltas. Lakeward, deltas may associate with small tur-bidite sandbodies. Between deltas, there may be some shoreline sandbodies. Vertically,nearshore flooding turbidite fans often appear under the short-axis steep slope deltas; Deltas can be overlain by fluvial sandbodies or shoreline sandbodies. The evolution history of the structural lake basin usually shows that there were several stages favorable for the formation of deltas, however, the deltas best for oil-gas accumulation were formed during the regressional stage between two main transgressional stages in the early middle stage of the lake evolution history. Knowing the distribution and cyclicity of deltas and their associated sandbodies would be very useful to find out more potential reservoirs in the exploited f
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