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《Acta Sedimentologica Sinica》 1983-03
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DIVISION OF DIAGENETIC STAGES OF CARBONATE ROCKS (ORES),THEIR CHARACTERISTICS OF STABLE ISOTOPES AND REWORKING MECHANISM IN THE EPIDAGENETIC STAGE

Liao Shifan ( Institute of Geology, Guizhou Geological Bureau )  
The diagenetic processes of the carbonate rocks ( ores ) can be divided into four stages: 1. Syndiagenctic stage At this stage, the action of aerobic bacteria was apparent. The physical and chemical conditions were pH 7 , Eh=+. The bottom water and the ocean water communicated with each other. There were mainly aragonite and high Mg-calcite in carbonate rocks. The pores had not been filled with carbonate, and there was no pressure figure, either. There were only iron and manganese oxides to be formed. δO~18‰( SMOW) value of the carbonate minerals was+29- +34 and δC~13‰( PDB ) valuc+ 3 - + 5. 2. Diagenctic stage At this stage, the action of anaerobic bacteria was apparent. The physical and chemical conditions were pH 7 , Eh= -. Carbonate minerals had gradually transformed into calcite. Most of the pores had been filled with sparrys or mic-rolites (only a few ). The pressure figure was apparent. Interstitial water accounted for about 80-90%, in which metal ions could form into microlity metal sulfides, siderites, and rhodochrosites. Some metal ions, including iron and manganese ones, replaced organism body or sedimentary texture. The replacement was so complete that microtexture and sedimentary texture of organism could be preserved. As a result of differential vertical pressure and solution, stylolitic structures formed. Iron and manganese oxides could be reduced to iron and manganese carbonates by organic carbon. δo 18‰ ( SMOW ) value of cabronate minerals was+ 28- + 32, and δc 13‰( PDB ) value + 3 - + 4 . 3. Postdiagenetic stage At this stage, the action of bacteria was not apparent, pH 7 , Eh = -. More new minerals had formed, and some crystals after recrystallization had a secondary enlargement and girdle. The further differential vertical pressure accompanied by solusion conld result in stylolites inclined or vertical to bedding plane. The δO ~18‰(SMOW) value of carbonate minerals was + 19-+28.5, while the δO~18‰( SMOW ) value of slderites was+ 23.1- +23.6. 4. Epidiagenetic stage This was the reworking stage of rock beddings, because they had been uplifted to the earth surface and then influenced by atmospheric water. Its upper part was the transformed zone of oxidation, a zone from the surface of the crustto the groundwater level. It was an open system communicating with atmospheric water. The physical and chemical conditions were pH 7 , Eh = + . Iron and manganese carbonates oxidized and became gossan and manganese hats. The lower part was the transformed zone of reduction, a zone from the groundwater level to the stagnated zone of groundwater, pH 7 , Eh = -. There were carbonate veins, and iron and manganese carbonate veins, silicification and quartz druse occurred in carbonate rocks. Siderites and rhodochrosites could replaced carbonate country rocks. All these showed the transformation of the reduction zone at the epidiagenetic stage. Vertical stylolitic joints occurrel. Because of the influence of fresh water ( groundwater), the δO~18‰(SMOW)value of siderites after transformation was 5-7, lower than that of the normal siderites. δC~13‰( PDB) value was 5, lower than that of the normal ones. The reworking mechanism at the epidiagenetic stage was as follows: The upper part of the transformed zone of oxidation was an open system. It was the result of oxidized carbonate rocks ( ores ). On the earth surface of this zone a great amount of rain water with CO_2 and O_2 poured in. The lower part of the transformed zone of reduction was a hemi-pent-up system, in which fresh groundwater with CO_2 might change into acid and reduction environment. As a result, the carbonate rocks and iron and manganese carbonates dissolved so as to form bicarbonate solution,such as Ca(HCO_3)_2, Mg(HCO_3)_2, Fe(HCO_3)_2 and Mn ( HCO_3 )_2. But, when the temperature rose or the pressure decreased, the carbonates, such as calcites, dolomites, siderites, and rhodochrosites, might become crystals again. Hence, these solutions could migrate for a short distance and could fill the fissures to form veinlets,
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