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《Acta Sedimentologica Sinica》 1984-03
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PERMIAN TURB1DITES AND RELATED COARSE CLASTIC SEDIMENTS IN XIAKAJIA-WANGATAN AREA OF XIAHE COUNTY, GANSU PROVINCE

Zuo Guochao Jin Songqiao Zhu Weiyuan (Geological Institute of Gansu Geological Bureau)  
The research has shown that Xiakajia-Wangatan area was a deep-water basin situated on the continantal in Early Permian. Hemipelagic deposits, turbidites and coarse clastic slump deposits were developed in this region. 1. Hemipelagic deposits on the continental slope The sediments are mainly composed of a thick series of gray-black slates. 2. Mark of the turbidites 1) Bouma sequence: Bouma sequence contains only B, C and D members, but the members from A to E occur at Mualonggou. 2) Mark of basal plane: The basal plane of turbidites often leaves lobate and trough molds which are made of the sediments scoured by running water and sculptured by mud sands. 3) Mark of extinct animals and plants: We have found many trails of flat worms ( chondrites ) on the basal planes of the turbidites at about 0.5km east of Xiak-ajia. In the same time some brashes of plant fossils are found in slate intercalated beds at Mualonggou and Imuo village. 3. Characteristics of the slump deposits 1) Quartzose gravel-bearing sandstone: This sandstone composed of coarse clastic sediments is a kind of basal slump deposit. The gravels are mainly composed of vein quartz, quartzite, metasandstone, etc. The matrin of the sandstone is made of siliceous rock debris. The above materials show that the sediments are derived from sands and gravels of the rivers and delta on the continent,and these sands and gravels are carried into this region in the form of slump deposits. 2) The clayey gravel-bearing'sandstone: This kind of sandstone is a series of slump deposits composed of clayey gravel-bearing sandstones overlying the bed of quartzose gravel-bearing sandstone. The clayey gravel is poor-sorted, and comes mainly from the hemipelagic sediments of the continental slope. 3) The laminated sandstone:The laminated sandstones are composed of sandstone with parallel fine stratifications which are formed by silt band.The laminated sand stones often possess cross-stratification, indicating that the slump deposit has developed into its late stage in which the action of running water had weakened so it was unable to trasport gravels, thus the gravel did not occur in this band. 4. Debris piles around the continental shelf These sediments are distributed at the edges of the cliff which is made up of the Carboniferous-Early Permian limestone on the sea bottom of the marginal sea. This rock is a kind of huge breccia formed by big limestone blocks of varying sizes. The rock assemblage is composed of debris piles or accumulational fans around continental shelf. Under the action of gravity the rock blocks fall down and accumulate along the slope. 5. The slump strata of limestone-bearing conglomerate The slump strata consist of huge Carboniferous-Early Permian limestone gravels, which are transported from the debris piles in the neighbouring area north of Xiakajia-Wangatan area. This slump deposit is the product of the gravity flow action. According to the data analysis, the neighbouring region, north of the Xiakajia-Wangatan area, was a carbonate sedimentary zone of neritic facies in the Permian, and Xiakajia-Wangatan area was a sedimentary zone of neritic reef facies in Early Permian, and became a continental slope and the abyssal basin in the Late Early Permian-Late Permian. In summary, the turbidites and the coarse clastic slump deposits mentioned above are a series of sediments at the marginal zone of the continental slope.
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