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《Acta Sedimentologica Sinica》 1986-04
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SANDBODIES IN LAKE BASIN

Wu Chongyun (Scientific Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing)  
Lakes developed well in China as the continent expanded in the Mesozoic and Ce-nozoi'c eras. Quite many lakes were large structural lakes with long developing history. Thick dark-colored mudstones ( or shales ) rich in organic matter were deposited in deep water area and formed good source rocks. Various porous rocks neighbouring to them could form oil-gas reserviors, in which sandbodies in lake basins were most advantageneous to the oil-gas accumulation as found so far in China. All around lake basins, the source of terrigeneous clastic materials was abundant and in close vicinity, so that sandbodies in lake basins developed well and were of much higher percentage than those in marine depositional strata. As the formation of sandbodies was under the control of the topography, material source, regional tectonic movement and climate factors which were variable at different place and time, the distribution regularity, sedimentary features and oil-bearing properties were different in different sandbodies formed in different evolution stage or different location in the same stage. Therefore, identifying different types of sandbodies in lake basins and studying their distribution regularity are not only of theoretical significance in researching the evolution history of the lake basin and the regional geology, but also of practical importance in oil-gas exploration. To differentiate lacustrine sandbodies,my suggestion is to connect sandbodies with lacustrine subfacies. According to water level in flood and dry stages and the wave base level, we have classified the lacustrine facies into five subfacies, i. e. shore subfacies, shallow lacustrine subfacies, semi-deep lacustrine subfacies, deep lacustrine subfacies and lacustrine bay subfacies. Such classification reflects not only the depth of water but also the location and hydrodynamic conditions. Therefore, it indirectly demonstrates the type, deposition and transformation of organic matter as well as the accumulation conditions of oil reserviors. Identification of mudstones is very important in classifying the lacustrine subfacies and sandbodies, because the lithological, geochemical and biological properties of mudstones are very sensitive to sedimentary environment, such as the depth of water, hydrodynamic, oxidation-reduction and other physical-chemical conditions. This paper emphasizes that to determine types of sandbodies, one can't only rely on sedimentary properties of sandbodies, the properties of surrounding rocks ( mudstones and other rocks ) must also be investigated. After the sedimentary environment of surrounding rocks has been known, the types of sandbodies themselves can be better determined. According to their origins, lacustrine sandbodies can be classified into five types: turbidite, delta, fan delta, subaqueous alluvial fan and beach bar. 1. Turbidity Sandbody Turbidity sandbodies were formed by the sediment-gravity flow in which the turbidity current was the most important one. The main characteristics of turbidity sandbodies were the normal grading sandbodies reflecting the suspension regime in transportation and deposition, and they were interbedded with dark-colored pure mud-stones of deep or semi-deep lacustrine subfacies. According to the distribution and geometry, turbidity sandbodies can be further classified into six subtypes; (1) nearshore turbidity fan on the steep shore formed by the steep marginal fault, (2) offshore turbidity fan with feeder channel on the gentle slope side, (3) fault trough turbidites on the steep side with the steep marginal fault and another fault parallel and dip toward each other, (4) turbidity fan or lens in front of nearshore shallow water sandbodies, (5) turbidites at the local subaqueous lift, (6) turbidity sheet sand at the central floor. Turbidity sandbodies developed mainly in the most depressive and expansive stage of lake evolution history, especially types (1) and (3) stated above. In other stages, turbidites could occur but in small scales when the deep water area presented. Turbidity sand
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