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《Acta Sedimentologica Sinica》 1989-03
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CHARACTERISTICS AND ANOMALOUS COALIFICATION OF THE TRANSFORMATION FROM THE MIDDLE AND LATE PLEISTOCENE PEAT TO SOFT BROWN COAL IN TENGCHONG BASIN

Qin Yong Jin Kuili (Geological Department, China University of Mining and Technology)  
The Tengchong Basin, located in the Western Yunnan, China, is a long and narrow intermountainous basin and about 35km2 in area.The mikkle and latd Pleistocene coal (peat) -bearing strata, made up of two terrigenous sedimentary cycles interbeding extructive rocks, was deposited on the Cretaceous granite base of the basin. Peat of soft brown coal seams occur in the upper section of each cycle. The soft brown coal in the lower cycle was formed about 600,000 B.P.and the peat in the upper about 75, 000 to 100, 000 B.P., part of which had also been transformed into soft brown coal.Tengchong region lies in the intermediatary zone between Euroasia plate and indian plate, in which there exsit the remarkable phenomena of geothermal anomaly, the violent and frequet volcanic activities and the frequent tectonic movements of earthquacks during the Quaternary .These poarticular geloogical processes led to the anomalous coalification transforming the Quaternary peat into soft brown coal in Tengchong Basin. The evidences in both coal petrology and organic geochemistry show that, in the process of the early coalification in the basin , the physical characteristics and the chemical composition and structure of the organic matter evolved in certain regularity.With the burial depth increasing and toward the central part of the basin, the compacted degree of peat or brown coal is strengthened; the random reflectance Rr~σof euulminites become increasing, ranging from 0.12% of the samples near the groundsurface to 0.33% of those at the depth of about 170 meters; the wavelength γmax at the maximum intensity of the fluorescent spectrum under ultraviolet -ligt irradition gradually shifts to the longer wavelengrh, and it should be especially noted that there is a distinct turning point between 0.16%Rr~σ and 0.22% Rr~σ near which the evolving direction of the red / green quotition Q of sporinites changes from decending tendency to ascending one with the Rr~σ increasing. As the Rr~σ of euulminites rises, there are the increasing tendencies in the calorific value / vumicacid matter ratio, the aromaticity, the fulvic acid / humicacid ratio, the temperature Tmax at the maximum rate of generation of cracting compounds, the ratio CH4/ nC2-4and the yield of binocycloaromatic hydrocarbon in cracking compounds and the ratio of aromatic hydrocarbon to beteroaromatic compounds in free compounds, the optical densities E750, E800, E1600aad E1375 / E2920 ratio, and the concentration Ng of tie free radicals in the organic matter, but there exist also the decreasing tendency in the H / C atomic ratio, the S1 implying the yield of free hydrocarbon and the S2showing that of cracking compounds, the yield of monocycloarmatic hyerocarvbon and the carbon preference index CPI of n-alkane in cracking hydrocarbon as well as E1375, E720, E1465, E2890and E1265, Additionally the absorbed peaks with wave numter 1500-15110cm~(-1)in FTIR spectra change from marking to almost disapperring with the Rr rising, and the latter is the typical characteristic of brown coal. It should be yet pointed out that there is a varying rate of cvo'.uation in both geochcmical and physical properties.In the burial peat with Rr-σ less than 0.16-0.18%and Tmax less than of equal to 400℃ , the vari-ous geochemical properties developed very slowly and dispersed much.In the soft brown coal with Rt~σ more than 0.22%or so and Tmax more than or equal to 410℃ , they developed at a relatively greater rate and the dispersion became little. These characteristics display that there are still the distinct substagcs even in the brief early geochemical coalification from peat to soft brown coal in Tcngchong Basin.Basing on these, the authors divide the stage of the early coalification of the basin into three substages, i.e., those of soft peat, hard peat and Tmax arc used as the principal parameters and the fluorescent parameters Q and A . which arc worthy to be further studied, arc used as the supplementary those.In addition, there are also the remarkable differences in the macroscopoic physical prop
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