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《Acta Sedimentologica Sinica》 1992-03
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Progress of the Phosphorite Research and Its Theory of Biomineralization

Dongye Maixing (Geological Institute for Chemical Minerals Product, Ministry of Chemical Industry, Zhuozhou, Heibei)  
The research of sedimentary minerals produced in China has achievablelv progressed for the recent decade on the basis of the sedimentary development, especially the phosphorite research has got a breakthrough progress. The phosphorite research has made two steps in a decade: the first is from the chem- ical sedimentary theory to the physical enrichmentary one and the second is the development of the biomineralization theory. Upper Sinian Epoch to the early period of Lower Cambrian Epoch is an unprecedented prosperous period of the phosphorus microorganism and it is also the most important phosphorus mineralization one in China, and tens of billion tons of phosphorus ore were formed. Many phosphorus microorganisms, such as agla and small shell fossils (the latter one is only produced in ore of Lower Cambrian) with various shapes have been found in phosphorites of every industrial mineral deposit and they are the main components of phosphorite. Among them the phosphorus microorganism is mainly from bacteria of procarytes to fungus of eucaryotes. Up till now, three communities have been found, i.e., bacteria, actinomyces and mould. The author adopted microbiology, biochemistry and medicine to the phosphorite research and discussed the phosphorite biomineralization, biological enrichment phosphorus mechanism about the oxidizing phosphoric acidification and biological calicification as will as expound the phosphorite biological cause on the basis of the phosphorite petro-biological characteristics. The biological characteristics of the chemical components and the infrared absorptive spectrum, and the rare-earth element compositions and so on are analysed. Phosphorite is actually a special biological rock and the phosphate composition ranges from ultramicros 0.05μm-0.5μm to macroscopic particles from silt to median sand. The phosphorite is consisted of single species bacteria and bacteria groupe, which consists of the same species microorganism, and the microorganism communities, which consist of the different species microorganism (including alga), as well as the small fossil shells. The phosphorite petro-types can be subdivided as micro-phosphorite, cumularspharolith, coated granule, algal bacterium granule, stromatolithic, agglomerative, oncolites and small shell phosphorite.Organic chemical compound of life organization, such as remaining amino acid and nucleic acid etc., are commonly discovered by the analysis of organic chemical composition. On the basis of analysis of infrared spectrum there are organic pigments, -CH3, -CH2, -C = H, OH and the vibration frequency of phosphorite is similar to one of the bone apatite of dinosauria, tortoise and hyolith and so on. The rare-earth elemetn standardization match model of the every phosphorite closes to the match model of apatite with the typical biological cause from Palaeozoic Era to modern times. Microorganism is colsely related to circumstance and the multiplying circumstance condition of microorganism relates internally to the sedimentary circumstance of phosphorite. There are a lot of physical and chemical conditions that influence the growing of microorganism, the important factors are temperature, Eh, pH and light. These most suitable conditions of the microorganism breeding and growing are closely related to the conditions of phosphorite forming. The "biological breeding field" of the most suitable phosphorus biological growing and multiplying in ocean shows no different from the palaeogeographical unit of the phosphorite mineralization. We call the biological breeding field as " the epicontinental subqueous galley wall" which is the most favourable minerogenetic belt of phosphorite. Our research has discovered the two main industrial mineral layers of Doushantuo period along the epicontinental subqueous galley wall which distribute from the western Hubei to the middle Guizhou offer as the regular overlap migration sediment according to the ingression and sea current directions. This law may be an universal one, otherwise, the two industrial mineral layers
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