Full-Text Search:
Home|Journal Papers|About CNKI|User Service|FAQ|Contact Us|中文
《Acta Sedimentologica Sinica》 2002-03
Add to Favorite Get Latest Update

Carbon Isotopic Composition and Yield of Gaseous Hydrocarbon by Oil Hydrous Pyrolysis in Rock Medium

FENG Zi-hui 1 CHI Yuan-lin 1 DU Hong-wen 1 HUO Qiu-li 1 HOU Du-jie 2 1 (Exploration and Development Research Institute of Daqing Oilfield, Heilongjiang Daqing 163712) 2 (Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Jiangzhon Hubei 434102)  
Hydrous pyrolysis experiments of generating gas from the mixture of oil-water and reservoir rocks have been caried out in a closed system,the samples are derived from deep layer of the Songliao basin.The results show that yield quantities of gaseous hydrcarbon is very small at temperature below 350℃,which mainly derived from oil evaporation.When simulating temperature reaches 400℃,large quantities of gas are generated from oil.With increasing of temperature the proprtion of methane in the generated gas increases,while the heavier components decrease particularly the propane.The range of temperature for gas largely generated from the mixture of oil -water sandstone is 450~500℃,while the range from the mixture of oil—water and igneous rocks is 450~600℃.The quantities of gaseous hydrocarbon generated from both settings are similar and about 17m 3/t oil at the end,but the hydrocarbon yield is different at each temperature point.The maximal yield at 500℃is respectively 78.67m 3/t oil abd 66.11m 3/t oil for the two experiments hydrolysis and catalysis may be an important influence on the composition and yield of the simulated gas.The experiment also shows that δ 13C values of the gas generated from the experiment at temperature between 400~450℃(R o approximately 1.3%~1.8%) are relatively lower than that of gas derived from kerogen,and δ 13C 1 is -50.86‰~-48.43‰.When the temperature increases to 550~600℃ (R o approximately 2.8%~3.4%),δ 13C of the gas brcomes reativly higher than that of gas derived from kerogen,and kerogen,and δ 13C 1 is -39.61‰~-24.26‰.This fact indicates that fractionation of carbon isotopon of gas from the experiment is stronger than the gas directly derived from kerogen.The regular sequence of carbon isotope has been found at temperature between 400~450℃ i.e.δ 13C 1δ 13C 2δ 13C 3δ 13C 4.But partial opposites sequence of carbon isotope appeared at temperature above 500℃,the sequence is δ 13C 1δ 13C 2δ 13C 3δ 13C 4. Comparing the carbon isotopic composition between the mixture of oil-water and sandstone and the mixture of oil-water and igneous rocks,the latter is lighter 1.2‰~4.2‰ than the fromer at the temperature of 400~450℃ and heavier at the temperature above 550℃,which show a different influence of catalysis in various medium.This result is useful for identifying the origin and maturation of nature gas for the deep layer of the Songliao basin.
【Fund】: 中国石油天然气集团公司“九五”科技工程资助项目 (编号 :970 2 0 6 - 0 2 )
【CateGory Index】: P618.13
Download(CAJ format) Download(PDF format)
CAJViewer7.0 supports all the CNKI file formats; AdobeReader only supports the PDF format.
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 FENG Zi-hui FENG Zhi-qiang LIU Wei WANG Xue GUAN Qiu-hua (Jilin university, Changchun 130061) (Research institute of exploration and development, Daqing LTD, Daqing 163712);The Origin of Condensate and Oil-type Gas from Deep Reservoir in the North of Songliao Basin[J];Acta Sedimentologica Sinica;2004-S1
2 GONG Xiu-mei 1,2 ZENG Jian-hui 1,2 JIN Zhi-jun 3 1(Basin & Reservoir Research Center, University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249) 2(Key Laboratory of Hydrocarbon Accumulation Mechanism of Education Ministry, Beijing 102249) 3(Institute of Exploration & Development of SINOPEC, Beijing 100083);Experimental Simulation on Oil-Water-Rock Interaction in the Deep Bonan Sub-sag[J];Acta Sedimentologica Sinica;2005-03
3 WANG Xiu-hong1 JIN Qiang2 HU Xiao-qing3 CHEN Tao2 SONG Guo-qi4WANG Li2 WANG Juan2 LIN La-mei2 CHEN Zhi-wei5(1.Research Institute of Geosciences;Shengli Oilfield Company Ltd.,Sinopec,Dongying Shandong 257015;2.Department of Resources and Information,China University of Petroleum,Dongying Shandong 257061;3.Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration,CNOOC Research Center,Beijing 100027;4.Shengli Oilfield Company Ltd.SINOPEC,Dongying Shandong 257015;5.The Department for Gas Testing in Southwest Petroleum Engineering Administratire Centre;Shengli Oilfield Ltd.,Dazhou Sichuan 646154);Kinetics of Gas from the Pyrolysis of Source Rock and Oil Cracking and Its Application in the Genesis of Natural Gases in Minfeng Area of Dongying Sag[J];Acta Sedimentologica Sinica;2008-03
4 YANG Chun1,LIU Quan-you 2,ZHOU Qing-hua3,LI Jian4,FENG Zi-hui5,LI Zhi-sheng4 1.Department of Earth Sciences,Zhejiang University,Hangzhou310027,China 2.Exploration and Production Research Institute,SINOPEC,Beijing100083,China3.Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development,PetroChina,Beijing100083,China4.Langfang Branch,Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development,PetroChina,Langfang065007,China5.Daqing Oil Company,PetroChina,Daqing163712,China;Genetic Identification of Natural Gases in Qingshen Gas Field,Songliao Basin[J];Earth Science(Journal of China University of Geosciences);2009-05
5 ZHENG Lunju,QIN Jianzhong,ZHANG Qu,ZHANG Zhirong Wuxi Research Institute of Experimental Petroleum Geology,SINOPEC,Wuxi,Jiangsu,214151;Gas-Generation Potentiality of Various Marine Crude Oil and Bitumen in China[J];Acta Geologica Sinica;2008-03
6 WANG Xiao-tao;WANG Tong-shan;Li Yong-xin;CHEN Yuan;LI Yun;XIONG Yong-qiang;State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences;Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development;;Experimental study on the effects of reservoir mediums on crude oil cracking to gas[J];Geochimica;2015-02
7 SHUAI YanHua 1,ZHANG ShuiChang 1,LUO Pan 1,LIU JinZhong 2 & HU GuoYi 1 1 State Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil Recovery,Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development,PetroChina,Beijing 100083,China;2 State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry,Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Guangzhou 510640,China;Experimental evidence for formation water promoting crude oil cracking to gas[J];科学通报(英文版);2012-35
8 LIU Quan-you;JIN Zhi-jun;LIU Wen-hui;Gao Bo;ZHANG Dian-wei;WU Xiao-qi;LI Jian;Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute,SINOPEC;Langfang Branch of Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development,PetroChina;;TSR Impact on Abnormal Carbon and Hydrogen Stable Isotopes in Sour Natural Gas from Marine Carbonate Gas Fields in the Eastern Sichuan Basin[J];Bulletin of Mineralogy,Petrology and Geochemistry;2015-03
9 Zheng Lunju1,2,Wang Qiang1,Qin Jianzhong1,He Sheng1 (1.Wuxi Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Production,SINOPEC,Wuxi,Jiangsu 214151,China;2.China University of Geosciences,Wuhan,Hubei 430074,China);HYDROCARBON-REGENERATION CAPABILITY OF MARINE PALEO-RESERVOIR AND SOLUBLE ORGANIC MATTER[J];Petroleum Geology & Experiment;2008-04
10 Hu Xiaoqing1,Jin Qiang2,Wang Xiuhong3,Lin Lamei2,Wang Li2,Wang Juan2,Wang Tingting4(1.CNOOC Research Center,Beijing 100027,China;2.China University of Petroleum,Dongying,Shandong 257061,China;3.Research Institute of Geological Sciences,SINOPEC Shengli Oilfield Company,Dongying,Shandong 257100,China;4.CNPC Liaohe Petroleum Exploration Bureau,Panjing,Liaoning 124010,China);Origin of natural gas in Mingfeng area,the Jiyang Depression[J];Oil & Gas Geology;2009-01
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 3 Hits
1 ZHENG Jlan-jing; JI Li-ming; MENG Qian-xiang (Lanzhou Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzkou 730000);Thermal Simulation Research of Partial Opposites Sequence of Carbon Isotope and Ethane Carbon Isotope of Gases[J];ACTA SEDIMENTOLOGICA SINICA;1999-S1
2 Chen Shijia and Fu Xiaowen(Southwest Petroleum Institute),Huang Difan(Research Institute of Pelroleum Exploration and Development)and Xu Feng(Research Institute of Qinghai Oil Field Branch).;GENESIS OF NATURAL GAS IN THE CARBONIFEROUS AND PARTIAL ORDOVICIAN RESERVOIRS OF TAZHONG REGION[J];Natural Gas Industry;2001-01
3 Zhao Mengjun ,Zeng Fangang and Qin Shengfei(Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development)and Lu Shuangfang(Daqing Petroleum Institute).;TWO PYROLYTIC GASES FOUND AND PROVED IN TALIMU BASIN[J];Natural Gas Industry;2001-01
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 LI Zhong-yang et al(Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering,Guangdong University of Technology,Guangzhou,Guangdong 510006);Research Progress of Black Carbon Analysis Methods[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2011-12
2 SUN Xuguang\ WANG Guanyu (Department of Geology,Peking University,Beijing,100871) JIN\ Kuili (Beijing Graduate School,China University of Mining and Technology,Beijing,100083);Thermoevolutional Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Generation from Barkinite,Late Permian Coals in Shuicheng,Guizhou Province[J];ACTA SCICENTIARUM NATURALUM UNIVERSITIS PEKINESIS;2000-02
3 YU Haiyang 1) SUN Xuguang 1),3) JIAO Zongfu 2) ( 1)School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871; 2)Coal Field Geology Exploration and Design Institute of Heilongjiang Province,Harbin,150008;Characteristics and Implications of Micro-FTIR Spectroscopy of “Barkinite” from Upper Permian Coals, South China[J];Acta Scicentiarum Naturalum Universitis Pekinesis;2004-06
4 WANG Zhen1,GUO Huaicheng 1,SUN Xuguang2,ZHANG Rui21. College of Environment Sciences and Engineering,Peking University,Beijing 100871; 2.School of Earth and Space Sciences,Peking University,Beijing 100871;Hydrocarbon Generating Potential and Mode of Late Permian Coal from Panxian,Guizhou Province[J];Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis;2010-01
5 GAO Yu-qiao~1,LIU Li~1,LIAO Qian-jin~2,SUN Xiao-ming~2,TENG Yun~31.College of Earth Sciences,Jilin University,Changchun 130061,China2.Research Center of Exploration and Development,Dagang Oilfield Company of CNPC,Tianjin 300280,China3.Geological Logging Company,Henan Petroleum Exploration Bureau Sino-Pec,Nanyang,Henan 473132,China;Geochemical Characteristics and Origin of Oil and Its Source Rocks in the Shallow-Middle Level:A Case Study of Tangjiahe Oil Field[J];Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition);2006-04
6 MENG Qing-tao,LIU Zhao-jun,LIU Rong,WANG Yong-liCollege of Earth Sciences,Jilin University,Changchun 130061,China;Controlling Factors on the Oil Yield of the Upper Cretaceous Oil Shale in the Nongan Area,Songliao Basin[J];Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition);2006-06
7 LU Jin-cai,WEI Xian-yang,CHEN Gao-chao,WEI Jian-she,LI Yu-hong Xi'an Center of Geological Survey,CGS,Xi'an 710054,China;Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Source Rocks in Lower Permian Maihanhada Formation in Hangwula Region of Alashan Right Banner[J];Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition);2011-02
8 LEI Huai-yu1,2,WANG Hong-yan1,3,LIU De-xun3, ZHONG Tai-xian4,LIU Xing-yuan5,ZHAO Qun3,HAO Ming-xiang3 1.Industrial College,Peking University,Beijing 100871,China 2.Exploration and Production Company,PetroChina,Beijing 100007,China 3.Langfang Branch,Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development,Langfang 065007,Hebei,China 4.China Petroleum Science & Technology Management Department,Beijing 100011,China 5.China Petroleum Materials Corporation,Beijing 100029,China;Pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetics of Liushuhe Oil Shale[J];Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition);2012-01
9 YANG Wen-guang1,ZHU Li-dong1,MI Wen-tian1,WANG Cheng-shan2 LI Ya-lin2,HUANG Hui1,WU Jing-long1,YANG Lin1,ZHOU Xiao-lin1 1.Instiute of Sedimentary Geology,Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059,China; 2.Institute of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Geology,China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083,China;Study on the biomarkers characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks from Cenozoic Yaxicuo Group in the Yanghu basin of Tibet,China[J];Journal of Chengdu University of Technology(Science & Technology Edition);2011-06
10 Wang Fangxiong, Hou Yingzi, Xia Ji.;New Advances in Hydrocarbon Source Rocks Evaluation.[J];Well Logging Technology;2002-02
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 LU Shuang-fang, LI Ji-jun, XUE Hai-tao, XU Li-heng Daqing Petroleum Institute, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163318, China;Chemical Kinetics of Carbon Isotope Fractionation of Oil-Cracking Methane and Its Initial Application[J];Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition);2006-05
2 Deng Hongwen (China Univerity of Geology) Qian Kai (Geological Research Institute of Shengli Oilfield);THE GENETIC TYPES AND ASSOCIATION EVOLUTION OF DEEP LACUSTRINE FACIES MUDSTONES[J];Acta Sedimentologica Sinica;1990-03
3 Shen Ping Chen Jianfa Peng Yunshuo (Lanzhou Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences);The Relationship Between Sedimentary Environments and Characteristics of Series of Fluorene and C_6 Compounds in Light Hydrocarbon[J];Acta Sedimentologica Sinica;1992-01
4 Li Rongxi; Jin Kuili(Beijing Graduate School,China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083);Simulation of the Hydrocarbon Generation and Expulsion of Coal by Hydrous Pyrolysis[J];ACTA SEDIMENTOLOGICA SINICA;1998-01
5 ZHENG Jlan-jing; JI Li-ming; MENG Qian-xiang (Lanzhou Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzkou 730000);Thermal Simulation Research of Partial Opposites Sequence of Carbon Isotope and Ethane Carbon Isotope of Gases[J];ACTA SEDIMENTOLOGICA SINICA;1999-S1
6 ZHANG Zhi huan 1 HU Wen xuan 2 ZENG Jian hui 1 YU Bing song 3 LU Xian cai 2 JIA Hong yu 1 1 (University of Petroleum, Beijing 102200) 2 (Nanjing Universiy,Nanjing 210008) 3 (China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100;Study of Fluid-Rock Interactions in Eogene Formation in Dongying Depression,Bohai Gulf Basin[J];Acta Sedimentologica Sinica;2000-04
7 CHEN Jian fa 1 XU Yong chang 1 HUANG Di fan 2 1 (State Key Laboratory of Gas Geochemistry, Lanzhou Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, P. R. China) 2 (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, C;Geochemical Characteristics and Origin of Natural Gas in the Eastern Tarim Basin(I)[J];Acta Sedimentologica Sinica;2000-04
8 CAI Chun fang 1,3 GU Jia yu 2 CAI Hong mei 3 1(Institute of Geology and Geophysics, CAS, Beijing 100029) 2(Petroleum Exploration and Development Institute, CNPC, Beijing 100083) 3(Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Jingzhou, Hubei 434102);Effect of Hydrocarbon Emplacement on Diagenesis of Silurian Sandstone of Central Tarim Basin[J];Acta Sedimentologica Sinica;2001-01
9 LI Shu yuan GUO Shao hui SHEN Run mei (University of Petroleum,Changping Beijing 102200);Study of Characteristics and Kinetics of Catalytic Degradation of Asphaltene[J];Acta Sedimentologica Sinica;2001-01
10 YIN Chang he WANG Ting dong WANG Shun yu LIN Feng (Institute of Southwest Petroleum,Nanchong,Sichuan 637001);Differences between Kerogen and Oil cracked Gases in Sinian Reservoirs of Weiyuan and Ziyang Area[J];Acta Sedimentologica Sinica;2001-01
【Secondary References】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 WANG Min1,LU Shuang-fang1,GAO Song1,LI Ji-jun1,WANG Nai-jun21.College of Earth Sciences,Daqing Petroleum Institute,Daqing,Heilongjiang 163318,China2.School of Petroleum Resources,Xi'an Shiyou University,Xi'an 710065,China;Method of Gas Generated from Asphalt and Its Application to Asphalt Sandstones of Silurian,Tazhong Area[J];Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition);2010-01
2 LU Shuang-fang1, HU Hui-ting1, LIU Hai-ying1, SHAO Ming-li2, WANG Li-wu2, ZHANG Shi-guang1, HUANG Wen-biao1, ZHONG Wei-wei1, WU Gao-ping11.College of Earth Sciences, Daqing Petroleum Institute, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163318, China 2. Exploration and Development Research Institute, Jilin Oil Field Company, Ltd., PetroChina, Songyuan,Jilin 138000,China;Gas Source Conditions and Exploration Potential of Deep Layer in Yingtai Fault Depression[J];Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition);2010-04
3 TANG Xiao-qiang1,HUANG Guang-hui2,ZHANG Min2,CHEN Chao1,HAN Jin-ping3,WANG Tao1,ZHU Hong-shuang1,SHI Feng1 1.Research & Development Center of Tuha Oilfield Company of CNPC,Shanshan 838202,China;2.Key Laboratory of Oil & Gas Resources and Exploration Technology of the Ministry of Education,Yangtze University,Jingzhou 434023,China;3.No.113 Exploration Team,Guizhou Bureau of Coalfield Geological Exploration,Guiyang 550023,China;Composition characteristics of products in the process of cracking of crude oil and oil fractions[J];Journal of Chengdu University of Technology(Science & Technology Edition);2011-01
4 CHEN Zhong-hong ZHA Ming (The University of Petroleum,Dongying,Shandong 257061);Over-pressured Fluid Compartment and Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation in Dongying Depression[J];Acta Sedimentologica Sinica;2006-04
5 QI Bin-wen1 LIN Chun-ming1 QIU Gui-qiang2 LI Yan-li1 LIU Hui-min2 GAO Yong-jin2 MAO Yong-qiang3 (1.State Key Laboratory of Mineral Deposits Research, Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093; 2. Research Institute of Geoseiences, Shengli Oilfield Company, SINOPEC, Dongying Shandong 257015; 3. State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS, Nanjing 210008);Reservoir Diagenesis of the Intermediate Section in Member 3 of Shahejie Formation(Paleogene) in Niuzhuang Sub-sag, Shandong Province[J];Acta Sedimentologica Sinica;2007-01
6 JIN Yong-bin1,2 XIAO Xian-ming1 TANG Yong-chun3 TIAN Hui1 ZHANG Tong-wei3(1.State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry,Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Wushan Guangzhou 510640;2.Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049;3.Power,Environmental,and Energy Research Center,California Institute of Technology,738 Arrow Grand Circle,Covina,California 91722 USA);A Kinetic Model of Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios in Gaseous Hydrocarbons Generated from Thermal Cracking of n-tetracosane and Its Geological Significance[J];Acta Sedimentologica Sinica;2009-03
7 SHEN Zhong-min1 LIU Si-bing1 L Zheng-xiang2 LUO Xiao-ping1 GONG Ya-jun1 (1.State Key Lab of Oil-gas Reservoirs Geology and Exploitation,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu610059;2.Exploration and Production Research Institute of Southwest Branch Company,Chengdu 610081);Vertical Geochemical Characteristics of Continental Formation Water and Its Water-Rock Interaction in the Middle Area of Western Sichuan Depression[J];Acta Sedimentologica Sinica;2011-03
8 CHEN Wu-zhen1 CHEN Hong-han 1,2 LI Wen-tao3 FENG Yong2 GONG Xue1 XIONG Wan-lin 1(1.Department of Petroleum Geology,Faculty of Earth Resources,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074; 2.Lanzhou Center for Oil and Gas Resources,Institute of Geology and Geophysics,CAS,Lanzhou 730000; 3.Institute of Geological Science Research,Shengli Oilfield,SINOPEC,Dongying,Shandong 257015);Study on Differentiation of Secondary Hydrocarbon Generation for the Carboniferous-Permian Source Rocks in the Eastern Linqing Depression[J];Acta Sedimentologica Sinica;2012-01
9 ZHENG Lun-ju1,2 MA Zhong-liang2 HE Sheng1(1.Key Laboratory of Tectonic and Petroleum Resources of Ministry of Education,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074; 2.Wuxi Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,Exploration and Development Research Institute,SINOPEC,Wuxi Jiangsu 214151);The New Method for Quantitative Evaluation Secondary Hydrocarbon Generation Potential of Marine Source Rocks[J];Acta Sedimentologica Sinica;2012-03
10 TANG Xiao-qiang,YIN Yu-chuan,LI Xiao-hui,ZHU Hong-shuang,YAO Pu-yong(Research & Development Center of Tuha Oilfield Co.,Ltd.,Shanshan 838202,Xinjiang,China);Natural gas geochemical study of the Hetianhe gas field in Tarim basin[J];Geology in China;2011-04
【Secondary Citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 4 Hits
1 Qian Zhihao Chen Zhenfu (Central Lab. of Petroleum Geology, MGMR);ON THE ORIGIN OF THE NATURAL GAS IN THE NORTHERN TARIM BASIN[J];Petroleum Geology & Expeximent;1992-03
2 Yang Tianyu Wang Hanyun;Simulating Experiment of Thermal Evolution Inferior Limif of Crude Oil and Kerogen and Its Application to Researching the Area with High Metamorphic Organic Matter[J];Atural Gas Industry;1984-04
3 Fan Guanghua;Existing Forms of Natural Gas and Gas Reservoir Types in Zhungeer Basin[J];Atural Gas Industry;1990-02
4 Li Jian, Xie Zengye, Luo Xia, Zhang Ying and Li Zhisheng(Langfang Branch of Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, CNPC) and Xiao Zhongyao (Geological Research Centre of Talimu Petroleum Exploration and Development Headquarte;GAS SOURCE IDENTIFICATION OF THE MAJOR GAS RESERVOIRS IN TALIMU BASIN[J];NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY;1999-02
©2006 Tsinghua Tongfang Knowledge Network Technology Co., Ltd.(Beijing)(TTKN) All rights reserved