Full-Text Search:
Home|Journal Papers|About CNKI|User Service|FAQ|Contact Us|中文
《Acta Pratacultural Science》 2003-03
Add to Favorite Get Latest Update

Effects of ABA,paclobutrazol and uniconazole on the drought resistance of bermudagrass

LU Shaoyun, CHEN Siman, CHEN Siping, GUO Zhenfei (Laboratory for Turfgrass Science, College of Life Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China)  
The effects of abscisic acid (ABA), paclobutrazol (PP333) and uniconazole (S3307) on the drought resistance of tifdwarf bermudagrass were studied. Tifdwarf bermudagrass was subjected to soil drought stress by withholding watering at the second day after spraying ABA, PP333 and S3307. The physiological effects were measured. The results showed that ABA, PP333 and S3307 increased the relative water content of tifdwarf bermudagrass and therefore increased the drought resistance. The transpired water loss was reduced by ABA and S3307. The effects of ABA (5 mg/L), PP333 (50 mg/L) and S3307 (10 mg/L) on the antioxidant enzymes were further determined under drought stress. The results showed that SOD activity was not affected by PP333 and S3307, but increased by ABA. CAT activity was increased by ABA and S3307, but not affected by PP333. POD activity was increased by ABA, PP333 and S3307.
【Fund】: 广东省科技攻关项目(C20302);; "863"项目(2001AA244082)资助。
【CateGory Index】: S688.4
Download(CAJ format) Download(PDF format)
CAJViewer7.0 supports all the CNKI file formats; AdobeReader only supports the PDF format.
【References】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Wang Hui Li Jun Zhou Shoubiao(Key Lab.of Biological Resource Conservation and Utilization,College of life science,Anhui Normal University,Wuhu,Anhui 241000,China);Comparative study on cold resistance of two native warmseason type lawn grass[J];Anhui Agricultural Science Bulletin;2007-01
2 LAN Zu-qing1,2,CHEN Ben-jian1,XU Bing-sen2,YE Zhen-hua3,CHEN Ping2(1.College of Pratacultural Science,Gansu Agricultural University,Lanzhou 730070,China;2.Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Technology,Guangzhou 510225,China;3.Guangzhou Institute of Landscape Gardening,Guangzhou 510405,China);Effect of waterlogging stress on activity of antioxidant enzyme in Agrostis stolonifera cv. Yuexuan No.1[J];Grassland and Turf;2007-03
3 HE Ba-jin,CHEN Ying,ZHOU He(Grassland Research Institute of China Agricultural University,Beijing 100094,China);Advances in application of plant growth regulators on turfgrass[J];Grassland and Turf;2008-02
4 HE Xia~1,YANG Zhi-ming~(1,2),XU Ying-chun~1(1.Horticulture College of Nanjing Agricultural University,Nanjing 210095,China;2.Turfgrass Institute of Beijing Forestry University,Beijing 100083,China);Research advances of plant growth retardants on turfgrasses[J];Pratacultural Science;2007-01
5 LU Shaoyun, GUO Zhenfei(Laboratory for Turfgrass Science, College of Life Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China);Physiological responses of turfgrass to abiotic stresses[J];Acta Pratacultural Science;2003-04
6 LIU Jian-xiu, GUO Ai-gui, GUO Hai-lin(Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210014, China);Morphological variation and types of Cynodon dactylon[J];Acta Pratacultural Science;2003-06
7 CHEN Ping~1, XI Jia-bin~2, GUO Wei-jing~3, YU Tu-yuan~1 (1. Zhongkai Agrotechnical College, Guangzhou 510225, China; 2. School of Life Sciences, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510275, China; 3. Zhongshan Weisheng Golf Services Co. Ltd, Zhongshan 528400, China);Physiological effects of high temperature stress on a new Agrostis stolonifera strain (Yue xuan No. 1)[J];Acta Pratacultural Science;2004-02
8 ZHOU Shou-biao, WANG Hui (College of Life Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, China);Effects of trample stress on morphology and physiological indices in leaves of two native warm season turfgrass[J];Acta Pratacultural Science;2004-05
9 WU Zhi-hua~(1,2,3), ZENG Fu-hua~l, MA Sheng-jian~1, LIN Li-jing~1, XIE Yao-jian~2, LU Xiang-yang~3 (1.Department of biology, Zhanjiang Normal College, Zhanjiang 524048, China; 2.China Eucalypt Research Center, Zhanjiang 524022, China; 3. Department of Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China);Effects of exogenous ABA on soluble protein in Cynodon dactylon under PEG stress[J];Acta Pratacultural Science;2004-05
10 XU Xiao-gang, WU Yan-qi, YANG Dong-sheng,HU Ting-xing(Sichuan Agriculture University, Ya’an 625014, China);Study on diversity of over-seeding lawn quality and biomass of tifway grass under different disposals[J];Acta Pratacultural Science;2005-02
China Proceedings of conference Full-text Database 2 Hits
1 GAO Yang,ZHANG Xin-Quan~*,XIE Wen-Gang (Sichuan Agricultural University Yaan 625014 Sichuan china);Application of Gray Relationship Analysis and Subordinate Function Values Analysis on the Drought Tolerance of Dactylis glomerata[A];[C];2007
2 QIN Li-gang,WANG Bao-ping,XU Qing-fang,XU Qing-bin (College of Animal science and veterinary medicine,Shanxi Agriculture University,Taigu Shanxi 030801);The Studies of Drought Tolerance of Bothriochloa Ischaemum[A];[C];2009
【Citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 9 Hits
1 Huo Chengjun Han Jianguo Mao Peisheng Zhang Honghai (Institute of Grassland Science, China Agricultural University,Beijing 100094);Effects of Plant Growth Regulator on the Turf Quality of Kentucky Bluegrass[J];ACTA AGRESTIA SINICA;2000-02
2 XIA Ning (Department of Greening and Landscape, Dongying, Shandong, 257091, China);Effects of paclobutrazol on carbohydrase in leaves of tall fescue[J];Acta Pratacultural Science;2001-02
3 HAN Jian?guo, PAN Quan?shan, WANG Pei (Grassland institute, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100094, China);A study on the evapotranspiration and drought resistance of turfgrass species[J];Acta Pratacultural Science;2001-04
4 DING Cheng-long 1,2, SHEN Yi-xin1, GU Hong-ru2 (1.College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China; 2.Institute of Animal Husbandry, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China);Effect of spring-applied paclobutrazol on growth and seed production of Festuca arundinacea[J];Acta Pratacultural Science;2002-04
5 Zeng Shaoxi; Wang Yirou; Li Meiru; Liu Hongxian (South China Institutc of Botany, Aoademia Sinica, Guangzhou 510650);CHANGE OF THE MEMBRANE PROTECTIVE SYSTEM DURING THE ENHANCEMENT OF CHILLING RESISTANCE INDUCED BY COLD HARDENING AND ABA TREATMENT IN RICE SEEDLINGS[J];JOURNAL OF TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL BOTANY;1994-01
6 Liu Jianxiu, He Shanan, Liu Yongdong (Botany Institute of Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy, Nanjing 210014);Characteristics and Economic Value of Warm Season Turfgrasses in East China.[J];GRASSLAND OF CHINA;1997-04
7 Cuo Zhen-fei, Lu Shao-yun and Li Ming-qi (Department of Agricultural Biology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642);PROMOTIVE EFFECT OF TRIADIMEFON ON DROUGHT RESISTANCE OF RICE SEEDLINGS[J];植物学报(英文版);1997-06
8 Guo Zhen-fei, Lu Shao-yun, Ld Bao-shen Li Ming-qi ( College of Biotechnology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642) Li Yong-chao (Hunan Institute of Rice Research, Changsha 410125);RESPONSES OF RICE SEEDLINGS IN DIFFERENT DROUGHT TOLERANT CULTIVARS TO OXIDATIVE STRESS[J];植物学报(英文版);1997-08
9 GUO ZhenFei LU ShaoYun LI BaoSheng LI MingQi(College of Biotechnology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642);RETARDATION OF LEAF SENESCENCE BY TRIADIMEFON TREATMENT IN MUNG BEAN SEEDLING[J];ACTA BOTANICA SINICA;1998-05
【Co-citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Liu Bo1 Liu Zhixiong2*(1 College of life science,Hubei Normal University Huangshi,Hubei 435002;2 College of Horticulture and Gardening,Yangtze University Jingzhou,Hubei 434025.);Effects of Paclobutrazal on Physiological Response of Several Bermudagrass Cultivars to Cold Stress[J];Anhui Agricultural Science Bulletin;2007-12
2 Tian Hua et al.(College of Agriculture,South China Agricultural University,Guangzhou 510642,China);Advances in Research of Drought Resistance Mechanism of Rice[J];Anhui Agricultural Science Bulletin;2009-11
3 MA Yuan- song et al (Biology Department, Shangqiu Teachers' College, Shangqiu, Henan 476000);Research on the Physiological-Biochemical Indexes of Different Soybean Varieties during Seedling Period under the Drought Stress[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2005-06
4 LI Zhong-xi et al (College of Forestry and Horticulture,Henan Agricultural University,Zhengzhou,Henan 450002);Differences of Protective Enzyme Activity of Feeding Robinia pseudoacacia Clones under Drought Stress[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2007-10
5 ZHANG Xiu-fang (College of Life Sciences,Shandong University of Science and Technology,Zibo,Shandong 255049);Effect of Seed Soaking with PP333 on Seed Germanton and Seedling Growth of Sorghum[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2007-13
6 ZHANG Xiu-fang(College of Life Sciences,Shandong University of Technology,Zibo,Shandong 255049);Effect of PP333 on some Physiology Indexes of Resistance Stress of Sorghum Seedling[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2007-15
7 LIU Zi-fan (College of Agronomy,South China University of Tropical Agriculture,Danzhou,Hainan 571737);The Latest Research Development of the Adaptation Mechanism of Crops to Soil Drought-stress[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2007-34
8 DUAN Hui-guo et al(Department of Chemistry and Life Science,Neijiang Normal College,Neijiang,Sichuan 641112);Effects of Seed-soaking with Triadimefon on the Seedling Quality and Partial Physiological Activities of Vigna unguiculata Seedling[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2008-03
9 WU Xiao-ling et al (College of Life Science,Ningxia University,Yinchuan,Ningxia 750021);Study on the Chemical Regulation Technology of Stellaria dichotoma L.[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2008-04
10 HU Chun-xia et al(Fushun Teachers College,Fushun,Liaoning 113006);Effects of Water Stress on the Physiological and Biochemical Changes in the Leaf of Nanguo-pear[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2008-12
China Proceedings of conference Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Chen Lisong, and Liu Xinghui (Department of Horticulture, Fujian Agricultural University, Fuzhou 350002);Research Progress on Oxidative Stress and Antioxidation Induced by Stress in Horticultural Crop[A];[C];1998
2 CaoHui, Lan Yanping, Liu Huichao, Wang Xiaowei,Wang Zhongying (Dept. of Hort.. ShanXi Agri.Univ..TaiGu030801);Effect of Water Stress in Soil on Active Oxygen Metabolism of Spur-Apple Young Leaves[A];[C];2000
3 ZHOU Feng -jue, XU Hong - yuan, BAI Kun - dong, SHI Li-jun (Agric.college,Guangxi Univ.,Nanning 530005);Effects of PP333 on the Growth , Photosynthesis and Transpiration of Cassava[A];[C];2003
4 ;Research on Evapotranspiration of Single Seeding Turf of Festuca arundinacea cv Pixie and Cynodon dactylon cv Sun city[A];[C];2004
5 PENG Yan,ZHANG Xing-quan,ZHOU Shou-rong (College of Animal Science,Sichuan Agricultural University,Yaan 625014, China);Research Progress on Turfgrass Germplasm Resources in China[A];[C];2004
6 LIU Jin-ping,YOU Ming-hong,MAO Kai,BAI Shi-qie,TANG Xue-hui (Department Of Grassland Science, Sichuan Agricultural University,Yaan 625014,China Sichuan Institute of Grassland , Chengdu 611731,China);The Influence of Potassium on Population of Centipedegrass[A];[C];2004
7 GOU Wen-long HE Guang-wu ZHANG Xin-yue (Sichuan grassland work station, Chengdu 610041, china);Effect of paclobutrazol on growth and seed yield of Lolium multiflorum[A];[C];2005
8 Zhang Mingsheng(College of Life Science,Southwest China Normal University,Chongqing 400715);General introduction of crop drought resistance research methodology[A];[C];2000
9 Zhang Mingsheng Tan Feng Zhang Qitang(College of Life Science, Southwest China Normal University,Chongqing 400715);Physiological indices of rapid identification for sweet potato drought-resistance and selection of methods[A];[C];2000
10 GAO Yang,ZHANG Xin-Quan~*,XIE Wen-Gang (Sichuan Agricultural University Yaan 625014 Sichuan china);Application of Gray Relationship Analysis and Subordinate Function Values Analysis on the Drought Tolerance of Dactylis glomerata[A];[C];2007
【Co-references】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 YU Ming-li~1,SUN Li-ping~1(Binzhou Vocational College,Binzhou 256624,China);Effect of PP_(333) on Growth and Drought Resistance of Tall Fescue[J];Shandong Agricultural Sciences;2007-01
2 Jia Hongtao et al (Department of Life Sciences, Linyi Teachers Univers ity, Linyi,Shandong 276005);Physiological Function Mechanism and Application of Multi-effect Triazole[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2003-02
3 TIAN Shi-lin et al (Department of A & F Science,Huanghuai College,Zhumadian,Henan 463000);Effect of Exogenous ABA on ABA Content in Leaf of Wheat[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2007-10
4 WU Guang-yu et al(College of Gardening and Horticulture,Yangtze University,Jingzhou,Hubei 434025);Preliminary Study on the Application of PP333 in Zoysia japonica Lawn[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2007-12
5 LIU Ying et al(College of Life Science and Engineering,Southwest University of Science and Technology,Mianyang,Sichuan 621010);Effects of Seed Soaking with Uniconazole Solution on the Morphological and Physiological Index of Wheat Seedlings[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2007-23
6 YU Ming-li (Binzhou Vocational College,Binzhou,Shandong 256603);Effects of Paclobutrazol on the Growth and Heat Tolerance of Tall Tescue Turfgrass[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2008-01
7 QI Yi-jun~(1,2),CHENG Guo-wang~(1,2),WANG Chun-sheng~2,WU Li-jun~1 of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031; 2.Hefei Fengle Seed Co.Ltd. , Hefei 230031);The Characteristics and Chemical Improvement of Floral Development of Cucurbita pepo L.[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural University;2004-04
8 Wang Liping(Horticultural Department,Anhui Agricultural University,Hefei 230036);Review on Iron Nutrition and Control of Iron Deficiency in plants[J];JOURNAL OF ANHUI AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY;1995-01
9 Yang Anzhong(Anhui Agrotechnical Teachers College);The Effect of the Seed Scading in S-07 Solution upon the Quality of Hybrid Rice Seedling and its Seed Yield[J];JOURNAL OF ANHUI AGROTECHNICAL;1995-01
10 Yang Anzhong(Anhui Agrotechnical Teachers College, FengYang 233100);Effect of the S-07 Leaf Spraying in Wheat upon the Factor of Yield and its Seed Yield[J];JOURNAL OF ANHUI AGROTECHNICAL;1996-02
【Secondary References】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Chi Chunyu1 Lian Yongquan2 Li Wenjun2 Ding Guohua1(1 Life Science Department,Harbin Normal University,Harbin,150301;2Heilongjiang Vocational College of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science,Shuangcheng,150111);Chilling Resistance Change of Three Turfgrass Varieties under Low Temperature Stress[J];Anhui Agricultural Science Bulletin;2007-07
2 LI Li et al(Department of Agriculture and Forestry Science,Huanghuai College,Zhumadian,Hennan 463000);ELISA Analysis on the ABA Content of Jinmai Leaves[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2007-23
3 FENG Qiang et al (College of Agronomy,Shenyang Agricultural University,Shenyang 110161);Study on the Impacts of Urban Environment on Urban Plant[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2007-35
4 QIAN Yun-mei et al(College of Life Sciences,Nanjing Agricultural University,Nanjing,Jiangsu 210095);Effects of Uniconazole on the Growth and Photosynthesis of Tall Fescue Turf[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2008-24
5 MA Hai-yuan et al(College of Agriculture,Liaocheng University,Liaocheng,Shandong 252059);Studies on Chilling Resistance of Horticultural Plants[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2009-08
6 CHEN Yan,GAN You-min,LIU Zhong-yi,REN Yong-kuan (Department of Grassland Science,Sichuan Agricultural University,Ya'an,Sichuan 625014,China);Effects of Roll Treatment on Morphology and Physiological of Native Bermudagrass in Sichuan[J];Northern Horticulture;2007-11
7 ZHANG Yun-yun,SUN Yan(China Agriculture University,College of Animal Science and Technology,Beijing,100094,China);The Thermotolerance Research of Cool-Season Turfgrasses[J];Northern Horticulture;2008-08
8 YI Yang-jie,ZHANG Xin-quan,GAO Yang,YAN Huan,CHU Xiu-juan(Department of Grassland,Sichuan Agricultural University,Ya'an,Sichuan 625014,China);Differing Response of Different Cynodon dactylon Varieties under Polyethylene Glycol Stress[J];Northern Horticulture;2008-09
9 LIU Jian-xiu, ZHU Xue-hua, GUO Ai-gui, GUO Hai-lin (Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences of Jiangsu Province,Nanjing,Jiangsu Province 210014, China);Morphological Variations of Eremochloa Ophiuroides and its Morphological Types[J];Acta Agrestia Sinica;2004-03
10 WANG Ji-hua1, TAN Jia-li1, GUO Zhen-fei1, MO Yi-wei1, Li Cong2 (1.Biotechnology Laboratory for Turfgrass and Forages, College of Life Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; 2.Institute of Animal Science, CAAS, Beijing 100094, China);Seasonal Changes in Antioxidant Systems, Soluble Sugars and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters in Leaves of Stylosanthes guianensis and Medicago sativa[J];Acta Agrestia Sinica;2007-05
China Proceedings of conference Full-text Database 5 Hits
1 PENG Yan,ZHANG Xing-quan,ZHOU Shou-rong (College of Animal Science,Sichuan Agricultural University,Yaan 625014, China);Research Progress on Turfgrass Germplasm Resources in China[A];[C];2004
2 ;Toxic effects of Mn~(2+) on Nymphoides peltatum mitigated by exogenous abscisic acid[A];[C];2007
3 Ma Ke-Qun~(1,2) Liu Jian-Xiu~1 Gao He~1 Yuan Xue-Jun~1 (1 Institute of Botany Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences Nanjing 210014 China; 2 Xinyang Agriculture University Xinyang 464000);Study on Morphological Identification between Cynodon dactylon var.and Cynodon transvaalensis[A];[C];2007
4 WANG Zhi-yong~(1,2) YUAN Xue-jun~(1,2) LIU Jian-xiu~(1*) GUO Hai-lin~1 (1.Institute of Botany,Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences,Nanjing 210014,China; 2.Department of Horticulture,Nanjing Agricultural Univeristy,Nanjing 210095,China);Optimization of SRAP-PCR System on Cynodon dactylon(L.) Pers.by orthongonal design and selection of primers[A];[C];2007
5 QIN Li-gang,WANG Bao-ping,XU Qing-fang,XU Qing-bin (College of Animal science and veterinary medicine,Shanxi Agriculture University,Taigu Shanxi 030801);The Studies of Drought Tolerance of Bothriochloa Ischaemum[A];[C];2009
【Secondary Citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Li Hongxiang; Han Jianguo; Chuai Haibin; Mao Peisheng(Institute of Grassland Sience, China Agricultural University, Bejing 100094);Effects of Fertilization on the Turf Quality of Kentucky Bluegrass[J];ACTA AGRESTIA SINICA;1998-01
2 ZHU Yong you, WANG Zhi (Biology Department, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, China);Effects of PP333 on tall fescue growth, development and physiology[J];PRATACULTURAL SCIENCE;2000-04
3 Li Zhihua Yang Zhimin Dai Guolin (Animal Science College,Nanjing Agricultural University,Nanjing 210095);EFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON GROWTH RATE AND QUALITY OF “TIFWAY”TURF GRASS[J];PRATACULTURAL SCIENCE;1998-05
4 JIANG Hai dong, SUN Xiao fang, WU Chun, CAO Wei xing (Key Laboratory of Crop Growth Regulation, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China);Effects of light and seeding rates on the growth and turf quality of tall fescue( Festuca arundinecea )[J];Acta Pratacultural Science;2000-04
5 XIA Ning (Department of Greening and Landscape, Dongying, Shandong, 257091, China);Effects of paclobutrazol on carbohydrase in leaves of tall fescue[J];Acta Pratacultural Science;2001-02
6 LI Shan?lin (Department of Agronomy, China Agriculture University, Beijing, 100094, China);Technical points of acetochlor using in Grammineae turfgrass[J];Acta Pratacultural Science;2001-04
7 Zhang Hongrong;Zhou Zhiyu; Wang Suomin(Gansu Grassland Ecological Research Institute,Lanzhou,Gansu 730020);Studies on Lawn Grass Growth in both Restraining and Reverse Restraining Conditions[J];ACTA PRATACULTURAL SCIENCE;1994-04
8 Lu Shaoyun1 Guo Zhenfei1 Peng Xinxiang1 Li Baosheng1 Li Mingqi1 Li Yongchao2(1 College of Biotechnology, South China Agric. Univ., Guangzhou,510642; 2 Hunan Institute of Rice Research,);THE ACTIVITIES OF PROTECTIVE ENZYMES OF RICE SEEDLINGS SUBJECTED TO DROUGHT AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO DROUGHT TOLERANCE[J];JOURNAL OF SOUTH CHINA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY;1997-04
9 Chen Shankun Zeng Xiaochun Liu Chuanfei(College of Agronomy,JAU,Nanchang);Effect of S-3307 and PP333 on the Tillering of RiceSeedlings and Its Relation to Phytohormones[J];ACTA AGRICULTURAE UNIVERSITIS JIANGXIENSIS;1998-03
10 Jiang Mingyi' Jing Jiahai Wang Shaotang(Department of Basic Course);Effect of Osmotic Stress on Photosynthctic Pigment and Level of Menbranc-Lipid Pcroxidation in Rice Seedlings[J];Journal of Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry;1991-01
©2006 Tsinghua Tongfang Knowledge Network Technology Co., Ltd.(Beijing)(TTKN) All rights reserved