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《Journal of Stratigraphy》 1993-03
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The late Pliocene-early Pleistocene boundary at some Chinese important localities of fossil mammals

Ji Hong-xiang  
This paper deals with four regions, namely, the Nihewan basin in Hebei, Wushan district in Sichuan, Yuanmou district in Yunnan and Lantian district in Shaanxi. Many fossil mammals were discovered from these regions. In recent years, the Nihewan Formation has been subdivided into two parts. Fossils described by P. Teilhard and J. Piveteau were from the upper part of the Nihewan Formation. A new fossil horizon was found at Daodi and Dongyaozitou. The Dongyaozitou fauna may be correlated with the upper part of the Daodi fauna. The Daodi-Dongyaozitou fauna can be compared with the late Pliocene Youhe fauna, equivalent to the early Villafranchian or Mn 16 (European sequence of Land mammal ages). More than thirty fossil mammals were found from Xinyaozi. None of them was described. Only a preliminary list of fossils was published, including Equus sanmeninensis, Protoryx sp., Myospalax omegodon. The age of the Xinyaozi fauna seems equivalent to the middle Villafranchian. This fauna indicates a transitional feature from the Pliocene Daodi-Dongyaozitou fauna to the early Pleistocene Nihewan fauna described by P. Teilhard and J. Piveteau. Many fossil mammals have been obtained from the cave deposits at Longgupo in Wushan county of Sichuan. The cave deposits can be divided into three members. The upper member is comprised of breccia totalling 4-5m thick. The middle member consists of alluvial brownish-yellow clay and contains abundant fossil mammals. The lower member is puddly soil, totalling 10.5m thick. The fauna includes some Nihewan elements and also Yuanmou fauna elements. Half of the elements from Wushan are reminiscent of those from Liucheng. The Wushan Gigantopithecus fauna may be correlated with the Liucheng Giganto-pithecus fauna. The former may be somewhat older than the latter. The Yuanmou Formation is a series of fluvio-lacustrine deposits of 673.6m thick and based on the sedimentary feature and fossil contents may be divided into four members. Members 1 and 2 corresponding to the Gauss are called the Shagou fauna. Member 3 ranges in age from the commence of Matsuyama to the time before the Olduvai polarity event, and Member 4 from Olduvai to the end of the Matsuyama epoch, called the Yuanmou fauna. Many fossil mammals were discovered from the green lacustrine deposit in Winan at the lower course of Youhe (River You). The Youhe fauna is in the district of the Hipparion fauna of Pliocene age, not the Nihewan fauna of Early Pleistocene age. It seems to represent a transitional and new fauna (Youhe fauna) and may be correlated with the early Villafranchian of Europe. The Houhecun region is located at the Houhe Village, Dali of Shaanxi. The Myospalax omegodon and Ochotonoides complicidens seem to be earlier than the Nihewan fauna and later than the middle Villavranchian fauna of Europe.
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