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《Soybean Science》 1985-01
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THE ORIGIN EVOLUTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF SOYBEAN

Wang Lianzheng (HeiLongjiang Academy of Agricultuaral Sciences)  
A famous historian of the Han Dynasty (145 B. C. -93 B. C.), Shima Qian, wrote a book of history. He mentioned, Huangdi (one of the oldest kings) grew five crops (millet, glutinous millet, soybeans, wheat and rice). According to the "Chronological table of Chinese history, the time of Huangdi was 2, 550 B. C." Zhu Shao Hou recorded that in the Shang dynasty, oracle inscriptions on tortoise shells and animals bones included rice, soybean, millet, barley, wheat, glutinous millet and others. In China the word "Shu" (soybean) was mentioned several times in the "Shijing" (Book of poetry). This book has a collection of more than three hundred songs. In Xiao Ya from "Shijing", it was mentioned that: in central China there was the soybean and farmers collected it." Another song, "Gaofen" stated that, "October rice and soybeans are collected." This song belonged to an early stage, about 1,000 B. C. of western "zhou." The place of origin of this song was Bin County, Shanxi Province. The history of soybean culture in China dates back several thousand years. According to Shijing. This is at least 3,000 years and perhaps 4,500 years or more according to "Shigi." During 1959 in Houma County, Shanxi Province, archaeologists unearthed grains. Now these soybeans are in the Natural Museum in Beijing. According to C determination, they are 2300 years old. The weight of a hundred grains is about 18-20 gr ams. These are the earliest and oldest of archaeological soybean seed relics in the world. It was cultured over 2300 years.The cultivated soybean evolve from wild soybean.The soybean was distributed from northeast part of China to Korea before 2,000 years ago and then from Korea to Japan, Another Way from eastern China by boat distributed to Japan. The soybean was known by Europeans and America only 200 or 300 years ago,
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