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DU Letian (Beijing Uranium Geology Research Institute)  
Based on the diwa theory, studies of rifting, asthenosphere, anomalous mantle, depleted mantle, plume, through-magma fluid, degassing, inorganic origin of oil and gas, deep source of salt deposits, alkalic metasomatism of hydrothermal deposits, and high-temperaturepressure experiment on basalt, the author demonstrates existence of a HACONS fluid. HACONS fluid means a fluid originated in the mantle and composed of hydrogen, halogen, alkajis, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. The HACONS does not include aluminosilicate. Aluminosilicate results from reaction of the HACONS fluid and solid rocks. Tectonism in geosynclinal, platform and diwa stages, rifting, plate tectonics, magmatic intrusion, volcanic activity, hydrothermalism, metamorphism, hot deposition and related mineralization are manifestations of large-sdaled korizontal and vertical of HACONS fluids in the asthenosphere. The asthenosphere or low-velocity layer is a HACONS-fluid-concentrated layer.
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