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《Geotectonica Et Metallogenia》 2013-01
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Influence of Water on Deformation of NAMs: A Review

SHAO Tongbin1,2, SONG Maoshuang1, JI Shaocheng3, LI Jianfeng1 and WANG Qian1 (1.State Key Laboratory of Isotope Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong, China; 2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; 3.Départment des Génies Civil, Géologique et des Mines, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal H3C 3A7, Canada)  
Even though water exists as a trace component in the solid Earth, it exhibits significant influences on the physical and chemical properties of crust and upper mantle minerals and rocks (e.g., melting temperature, electrical conductivity, anelasticity, elastic wave, rheological properties, and transformation kinetics), and hence play important roles in many geological processes (e.g., partial melting, volcanism and earthquake). Particularlly, water controls tectonic evolution and geodynamics on the earth by affecting the strength and deformation mechanisms of minerals and thus the rheology of rocks. Nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs), a type of minerals which have no H in their chemical formulae, can dissolve significant amount of water or hydrogen. Although the concentration of water in NAMs is much less than that in hydrous minerals (e.g., amphibole, serpentine, etc.), the amount of water dissolved in NAMs in the Earth is quite huge because they constitute most volume of the earth. Even only olivine, can dissolve more water than the seas. Understanding the influence of water on the deformation of NAMs, especially quartz and olivine which are the main constitutes of the crust and the upper mantle, respectively, is thus essential for modeling precisely the strength envelope of lithosphere and understanding its tectonic evolution and geodynamics. This paper provides a systematic summary for the influence of water on deformation of NAMs. We firstly introduce NAMs through reviewing the existence forms of water inside the earth and proposing that NAMs are important reservoirs for water in the solid earth; then present the dissolution mechanisms of water, influential factors of solubility and diffusion kinetics of water in NAMs; and finally emphasis on a detailed description that water weakening in quartz and magnesium-rich garnet is the strongest and it decreases successively in clinopyroxene, feldspar, and olivine, but water weakening in wadsleyite and ringwoodite is the weakest.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金项目(批准号:41174072 41090373 40772029 41102139);; 中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(编号:KZCX2-YW-Q08-03-4);; 中国科学院“百人计划”项目(编号:KZCX-0733221A07);; 青藏高原东部和东南部岩石圈流变学及地球物理性质研究项目(编号:1212011121274)联合资助
【CateGory Index】: P313
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