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《Journal of Marine Sciences》 2008-02
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Harmful effects and detection of toxic algae and their algal toxins

DU Wei,LU Dou-ding(Second Institute of Oceanography,SOA,Key Laboratory of Marine Ecosystem and Biogeochemistry,SOA,Hangzhou 310012 China)  
There are about 4 000 species of algae in the sea,in which about 300 species can cause red tides or harmful algal blooms and about 80 species are toxin producer.When red tides caused by toxic algae occur,the most serious perniciousness is the production of red tide alga toxins(algal toxins) mainly including Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning(PSP),Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning(DSP),Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning(ASP),Neurotoxic Shel1fish Poisoning(NSP),Ciguatoxins(CTX) and Hemolytic toxins.Some algal toxins can dissolve in the seawater and kill large amounts of marine animals and result in grave harm on marine living resources as well as the safety of marine ecosystem.Some toxins can also irritate eyes and cause diseases of respiratory systems when they get into the air in the form of gas.As a primary producer,algae are at the bottom of the marine food web.Toxins produced by the toxic algae can be transferred to superior consumers by accumulation or transformation in the marine organism and if people eat food that contains these toxins,they are likely to be poisoned or even die.For the harmfulness of the algal toxins,human beings have been looking forward to a quick,effective and sensitive detection method to find out the occurrence of harmful red tides or the algal toxins and their amounts in the shortest possible time so as to reduce the impact on the marine environment and human health.Before the monitoring of harmful algae blooms,the structure of algal toxins,human's poisoning symptom,or even the poisoning mechanism of the algal toxins should be defined.Toxic red tide algae and their algal toxins have always been the main objectives of the scientists working on red tides.Their detection has been an important content of global red tide ecology and oceanography.Detection of toxic algae can be realized through morphological taxology,molecular biological techniques(heredity probe) and immunological techniques.Algal toxins can be detected through biological techniques,physical chemistry techniques,neurological techniques and immunological techniques.Though toxic harmful algal blooms are very harmful,pharmacological study has proved that some algal toxins could have unexpected effect on Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular diseases and neurosis.Human beings are accelerating the study on algal toxicology to make algal toxins serve the people's health.In this paper,the status of the study of toxic algae and algal toxins is briefly reviewed,including the species and structure of toxic algae and algal toxins,detrimental mechanisms and the poisoning symptom of human.The recent progress on detection technology of toxic algae and algal toxins is also addressed.
【Fund】: 浙江省自然科学基金资助项目(Y505298);; 浙江省生态建设基金资助项目(05/06)
【CateGory Index】: X55
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