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Review of the Studies on the Tourism Spatial Competition and Cooperation

SHI Chun-yun~(1,2),ZHANG Jie~1,SHEN Zheng-ping~2,ZHONG Jing~1(1.Department of Urban and Resource Sciences,Nanjing University,Nanjing 210093;2.College of Urban and Environmental Sciences,Xuzhou Normal University,Xuzhou 221116,China)  
With the development of the tourism all over the world,regions of different levels,from global,national to local,community regions,are facing with how to harmonize their spatial relations so as to promote their tourism competitiveness.The study on regional tourism spatial relation has been attached much importance to at home and abroad.In particular,main attention has been paid to spatial competition and cooperation among different tourism regions.Studies on tourism competitiveness have mainly focused on tourism resources,tourism demands,image designing and marketing of the destination,tourists' information search behavior,knowledge innovation,network contact and the competitiveness of particular destination.Stakeholder cooperation,inter-firm cooperation,co-exploiting market,public and private sectors cooperation,and cooperation between tourism and other relevant industries have been heatedly studied in recent years.Reviews of relevant literature reveal that most of the studies undertaken have been simply focused on spatial competition or cooperation.In fact,both competition and cooperation exist in different regions simultaneously,i.e.'co-opetition'.The combination makes for a more dynamic relationship than the words 'competition' and 'cooperation' suggest individually.Although in recent years studies on the regional competitiveness and industrial competitiveness and industrial clusters have been heated topics,little attention has been paid to the study on either the competitiveness of tourism industry and tourism region,or the pattern and the mechanism and the spatial function process among different tourism regions,all of which need further research.
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