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Spatial and Temporal Health Risk Assessment of Water Environment in Urban Area

ZOU Bin1,2,ZENG Yong-nian1,Benjamin F.ZHAN 2,YANG Ling-bin3,ZHANG Hong-hui1(1.School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering,Central South University,Changsha 410083,China;2.Texas Center for Geographical Information Science,Texas State University,San Marcos 78666,USA;3.College of Urban and Environmental Science,Northeast Normal University,Changchun 130024,China)  
Water pollution intensity can be objectively quantified by traditional Chinese classification system of water quality,however,this method can not directly disclose the human health risk exposed to water pollutants.In this paper,the spatial-temporal differences of human potential exposure risks to water pollutants were evaluated by using the water environmental health risk assessment model developed by U.S.EPA and the source contribution of these risks over five water quality monitoring sites from 2001 to 2005 was analyzed.The results reveal that water pollution situation of study area is very serious,as the health risk values caused by 72 percents of monitored water samples exceeds the guideline threshold(5.0×10-5a-1),recommended by ICPR,of human health risk.The greater human exposure risks happed in year 2001,2003,and 2005 and located in monitoring site 1# and 2#.The results also indicate that chemical carcinogens are the major roots of human health risk exposed to water pollution in study area during the study period,while no health risk is caused by the non-carcinogens.The order of carcinogens causing human health risk is AsCr+6Cd,when,for non-carcinogens,the order is FPbCuNH3-NHgCN-1hydroxybenzene.Overall,the results suggest that water environmental health risk assessment model could be better identify the human health risk exposed to water pollutants,compared to traditional Chinese classification system of water quality.The research results could also help policy maker to ascertain the priority of water pollutants need to be treated.
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