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《Progress In Geography》 2002-06
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A Perspective on Hydrological Base of Water Security Problem and Its Application Study in North China

XIA Jun(Institute of Geographical Science and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing100101 China)  
The issue of water shortage and related ecoenvironmental degradation in the North China is one of the major emergency problems in China. As runoff generated from mountain area is significantly decreased and water resources are over developed, serious water and ecoenvironmental problems have arisen, such as dryingup of river system, ground water decline, lake wetland degradation, and water pollution in plain area, etc. It has been shown, that in the case of Haihe River Basin, among the total rivers of 10000 km, the rivers of 4000 km have been turned to be seasonal rivers. Comparing with the situation in the beginning of 1950s, the wetland area within the Basin has decreased from 10000 km2 to 1000 km2 at present. The area with overextraction of groundwater covers nearly 90000 km2, or 70% of the plain areas. Comparing with that of the end of 1950s, the accumulated overextracted groundwater is 90 billion m3. Water and soil loss area in mountainous region is 110000 km2, or two thirds of the mountainous region. The sandstorms induced by desertification are endangering Beijing and other cities. Thus, the problems of water shortage and related ecoenvironmental issues in North China have become the most significant issues to impact sustainable development in this very important region that is political, cultural and economic center of China. This paper addresses these emergent issues by the case study of Haihe River Basin in North China. The new advantage in international study on water and background causing these problems from natural change and particular human activity are analyzed. Key points are addressed in four aspects: (a) the study of the water cycle process impacted by high intensity human activity, a process which is quite different from that in natural water cycle, (b) water utilization related to new economic partner change, such as saving water model, (c) study on ecohydrology, and interaction of water and ecology impacted by climate change and human activity, and (d) reasonable water allocation that includes Water Diversion from South to North and saving water issue in local areas. Several suggestions of both study on the water cycle, which is a very important base of water security in North China, and study on application of water resources and ecoenvironmental rehabilitation are proposed. These key issues will benefit to both advantage of water science and sustainable developing in China.
【Fund】: 中国科学院知识创新工程项目(KZCX2-SW-317/CX10G-E01-08);; 国家自然科学基金项目(49971017)资助
【CateGory Index】: TV213
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