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Slope Variation of Small Tested Loess Watershed under Erosion of Rainfall

WANG Chun~(1),TANG Guo-An~1,ZHANG Ting~(1),LI Zhan-Bin~2,XIAO Xue-Nian~3,WU Liang-Chao~4(1.Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Geoinformatics,Nanjing Normal University,Nanjing,Jiangsu 210097;2.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resource,Yangling,Shaanxi 712100; 3.The Research Institution of Surveying and Mapping Standardization,Xi'an,Shaanxi 710054;4.Department of Urban and Resource Science,Northwest University,Xi'an,Shaanxi 710069)  
The topographic feature is one of the main factors that influence the process of soil erosion and sediment yield of small watershed.It is very necessary to quantitate the topographic feature of small watershed and get the correlative parameters rapidly.According to the process resemble principle and statistic analysis of the topographic feature of small watershed on the Loess Plateau,the small tested watershed is designed.Based on 25 artificial simulated rainfalls,the dynamic development process of the topographic feature of the tested small watershed is studied by means of photogrammetry and GIS technology.DEMs at nine different erosion levels were picked up with a high precision and resolution.The spatial variation of slope and its composition derived from these DEMs are mainly discussed through comparison analysis and experimental validation.The result shows: firstly,in the process of rainfall erosion,the velocity of the increase of the surface mean-slope is increasing during erosion prophase and decreasing during erosion activity stage.The decrease of smoother slope balanced with the increase of steeper slope at erosion critical angle,namely,the proportion of erosion critical angle histogram resultants is keeping almost steady.In addition,the variation of slope composition reflects not only the spatial variation of loess morphology,but also the rule of loess erosion and the developing process as well.
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