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Comparative Analysis of Prehistoric Sites Distribution Around 4 ka B.P.in Gansu-Qinghai Region Based on GIS

HOU Guang-liang1,XU Chang-jun2,XIAO Jing-yi1 (1.Key Laboratory of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Environment and Resource(MOE),Qinghai Normal University,Xining,Qinghai 810008,China;2.Basic Geography Information Center of Qinghai Province,Xining,Qinghai 810001,China)  
In Gansu-Qinghai Region,compared with the previous Majiayao culture,the distribution of Qijia culture's northern boundary trended south and the overall elevation lowered,which is the response to 4 200 a B.P.extreme events of arid climate and temperature drop.Distribution of Qijia culture sites are sparser than Majiayao,the shortest distance between sites become larger and the dependence on the river reduced,which shows that animal husbandry came into being during the period of Qijia culture.Density analysis showed that Majiayao single-core condensed settlement model evolved into Qijia′s multi-core model around 4 ka B.P.,and it implies that Qijia community splited into several tribal groups.Extreme weather events caused the agricultural productivity decrease,resource deterioration and frequent inter-tribal war,which stimulated the formation of patriarchy and progress of smelting technology.So extreme weather events around 4 200 a B.P.promoted the production of animal husbandry,the establishment of patriarchy and the generation of smelting technology,eventually make the Gansu-Qinghai prehistoric society complicated and organized.
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