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《Acta Geographica Sinica》 1950-01
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The Geographical Distribation of Crop Productivity In Szechuan Province, China.

Mei-Ngo Jen (National University of Nanking)  
In the last decade, growing attention has been paid to the study of crop productivity which has an important bearing on the areal differentiation of agricultural landscape. Four kinds of coefficients have been devised to measure the productivity, i.e. the productivity coefficient, the ranking coefficient, the money value coefficient and the energy cofficient. It has been shown elsewhere that the money value coefficient is a more useful and more direct indicator of crop productivity, and economic units correspond rather closely with nutritive units. In the present study, both money value coefficient and energy coefficient have been calculated so that the results may be compared The essential data for the calculation, i.e. crop acreage, production, and area of cultivated land, are taken from figures issued by the Szechuan Provincial Agricultural Bureau, using the five year average of 1939?3. Since crop productivity is measured per unit area of cultivated land, it is evident that the results are effected only by the relative proportion of acreage of crops and their respective yields. These figures as taken from the Szechuan Provincial Agricultural Bureau are found to be generally correct, except in case of a few cash crops, such as sugar cane, cotton and tobacco for which more reliable data are available from other agencies. For this reason, although statistical data of the Szechuan Provincial Agricultural Bureau contain many evident errors, they are nevertheless useful for the present purpose. In the calculation of the money value coefficient, the following formula s used: In the above formula, A is value of production per shih mow (1) of cultivatedland in a given hsien (2), P the prodution of a particular crop in shih piculs of 100 catties (3), M the money index of the particular crop, and A the total area under cultivation in this hsien. P and A are taken from the official data noted above. For most crops, the mean wholesale prices of 1937?0 in Chungking and Chengtu are used for the calculation of M. But the money indices of cane and cotton, not listed in Chungking and Chengtu, are based on prices of Nuikiang and Suining, the producing center of cane and cotton in Szechuan respectively. Unhusked rice is used as the standard of evaluation, other crops being calculated as ratio to it. The results are summarized as follows: Money Indices of Crops (unhusked rice = 1) (average 1937?0) Rice and the twelve crops listed above are the most important crops in Szechuan, accounting for 80% and 65% of cultivated land in summer and winter respectively. In fact, these crops occupy about 90% of summer crop acreage and 95% of winter crop acreage, for the percentage of cultivated land in fallow is 10% in summer and 30% in winter. In the calculation, crops not listed above are also counted, using the mean value of output per mow of maize, sweet potato, kaoliang and soybean as the standard of evaluation of the miscellaneous summer crops and that of wheat, barley, rapeseed, broad bean and peas as the standard of evaluation of the miscellaneous winter crops. No consideration is given to by-products such as rice straw, wheat straw, ete., to tree crops, such as tung oil, orange and to livestock products. However, as animal husbandry is not important in the general farming practice of Szechuan, except in the northwestern plateau, crop productivity thus obtained may be taken as an approximate indicator of agricultural output. (1) I shih mow = 1/15 hectare. (2) A hsien is the smallest administrative unit in which statistical data are available. (3). I shih picul = 50 kg.The energy coefficient expressed in calories is calculated by a similar formula: where C, calorie equivalent of a particular crop, substitutes for money index, M. According to Prof. S. Cheng of Biochemistry Department, National University of Nanking, calorie values of some important crops are as follows: Calories per kg. In the calculation, besides other miscellaneous crops, cotton and tobacco are also taken as miscellaneous summer crops whose calorie values per
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