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《Acta Geographica Sinica》 1951-Z1
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The Climate of China as Based Upon the Analysis of Monthly Temperatures

C.S.Yao (Chckiang Uniuersity)  
In the light of genetic classification, the climates of China have been classificied into three groups, viz., (1) the monsoon climate, (2) the temperate inland climate and (3) the temperate plateau climate. Owing to the lack of sufficient meteorological data for the inland areas, emphasis has been placed upon the first climatic group, while the other two have been dealt with only briefly. The temperate inland climate is confined to the NW frontier where the SE monsoon is out of reach. The temperate plateau climate is found mainly in the Tibetian plateau north of the Tangla Mountains, while-the SE part of Tibet falls within the realm of monsoon climate. Two main types of monsoon climate are recognized, namely, the tropical-natured monsoon climate and the temperate-natured monsoon climate (cf. fig.). As a result of the tropical rainy season, it appears as a rule that the phase angles of the annual march of temperatures in the tropical-natured region are abnormally large, though lying not far inland. On the contrary, the phase angles of the temperate-natured region are usually controlled by location. The tropical-natured monsoon climate, which is distinguished from the true tropical monsoon climate, comprises the tropical monsoon climate and the subtropical monsoon climate of upland types. In the temperate-natured climate, there are temperate monsoon climate and the subtropical monsoon climate of south coast ty.pe. The latter, though located in the tropical latitudes, possesses subtropical characterisitics because the strong Siberian Cold airmass frequently extends its influences over this region. Furthermore, this transitional zone resembles in many respects the temperate region rather than the tropical belt, so that it seems more properly to include it in the temperate-natured monsoon climate. As a result of the invasion of the SW monsoon from the Indian Ocean and being nearly free from the Siberian Cold airmasses, the subtropical monsoon climate of the SW Plateau, on the other hand, is more akin to the tropical climate thanto the temperate region. Therefore the subtropical monsoon climate of the upland type is designated as the tropical-natured climate. The rainy season of the tropical-natured region is controlled only by the SW monsoon which is originated from the southern hemisphere or from the equatorial region, while the polar frontal rainfall is negligible. The temperate-natured monsoon climate is further divided into four subtypes according to the phase angles, viz., (1) the continental type, (2) the oceanic type, (3) the transitional type and (4) the coastal type. They are identified with Koppen's BS, CF and DW, CW climates, and are delimited by 250?and 255?phase lines respectively. The coastal type is confined to the coastal region north of the 250?phase line, while south of this line, it is included in the oceanic type. The continental type distinguishes itself by the following characteristics: (1) annual rainfall is mostly concentrated in summer and early autumn, (2) warm spring and cool autumn, (3) large annual range of temperature and (4) earlier phase time. On the contrary, the oceanic type is characterized by such features as (1) fairly even distribution of rainfall throughout the year, though summer is still the rainiest season, (2) cool spring and warm autumn, (3) much smaller annual range of temperature and (4) more later phase time as compared with that of. the continental type. The transitional zone is not only intermediate in position, but transitional in all the climatic characterises. The coastal type may be classified into the continental type so far as the rainfall conditions are concerned, but its temperature conditions are oceanic because of the direct influences of the neighbouring seas
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