The Northwestern Pacific Ocean and Its Influences on the Climate of China.
John Lee (Institute of Geophysics and Meteorology,Academia Sinica)
The northwestern parts of the Pacific Ocean, especially the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea and the Sea of Japan have always exerted certain degrees of influences on the climate or weather of our coastal provinces, particularly during the summer seasons. In northern hemisphere, the cold ocean currents occur on the western side of the great ocean and nearby continents. In the very places, where the cold ocean currents originate, there accumulate sea ices during the winter seasons. The variations of the amount of ice from year to year exert, therefore, different effects upon the climate in questic n. For instance, the severe winter fti 1930-1931 caused much heavy sea ice in the northwestern parts of the Pacific, chiefly in the Okhotsk Sea. In July 1931, heavy floods occurred both in Japan and along the middle and lower Yangtse Valley. In another rather warm winter 1923-1924, the ice in the Okhotsk Sea was reduced and the Okhotsk Anticyclones in the next July 1924 were accordingly shrunk and insignificant, but the Pacific High, on the contrary, had attained the fullest development, so the lines of discontinuity and consequently the flood zone shifted northward to the lower Yellow River while the Yangtse Valley suffered from drought. In 'present paper, it deals with the following eleven items: ( 1 ) Introduction; (2) The geographic survey of the different seas of Eastern Asia; (3) The ocean currents; ( 4 ) The sea ices; (5) The. surface water temperatures; (6 ) The origin of the "Eiskeller" (7) The area of the melting ice water in the northwestern Pacific; (8) The origin of the Okhotsk Anticyclones during the summer seasons; (9) The question of the so-called "Plum Rain";(10) The question of monsoons; (11) The relations between the northwestern Pacific and summer climate or weather in Eastern Asia.