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《Acta Geographica Sinica》 1992-02
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Cai Yunlong(Department of Geography,Peking University)  
People use land always in such a way that they simultaniously utilize various type of land in an area. They ought to determine the reasonable land use manners according to the features of land-forming factors and the productive potential of land. They also must establish an as-sociation of land uses with a link of material and energy, according to the interrelationship of various land types, so that the overall benefit of land use can reach to the best. Therefore, people must study the interrelation of land-forming factors and that of land types. Such inter-relations may be called as land structure. In present time, many disciplines are involved in structure research, so as to result in a philosophical or methodological movement known as structuralism revolution. Structuralism holds that: (i) An academic domain should find laws without seeking explanations from out-side the domain, and should establish the structure of self-explanation. (ii) The structures found in practices should be formularized and, as formulae, used in deductive reasoning. Str-ucture has three factors, i.e., holisticity, transfer regularity and self-adjustment. Geographers introduced the structuralism as a philosophy and methodology into land research, and develo-ped the theory of land structure. Land structure includes the component structure of land-forming factors, the structure of land successions, the structure of land spatial patterns and the inside structure of land units. The component structure refers to the interrelation of land-forming factors, and its ef-fects on integrated features of the land and its role in land classification. In general, the com-ponent structure of land-forming factors could be understand through the search of leading factors. Of course, this search should be based upon the comprehensive analysis. Thus not only the major physical characteristics are stressed and other factors are reflected, but also the key problems in land use are clearly defined. Therefore, analysis of land component structure is important in land classification and evaluation and also in land use and improvement. The structure of land successions refers to the interrelation of various stages in land succe-ssion processes. Studing it is helpful for predicting land dynamics, determining rational and sustainable land utilization type, promoting on initiative land into a good cycle, and prevent-ing degradation and destruction of land. The structure of land spatial patterns refers to the distributive regularity and pattern of land types, that is the comparative spatial relations of quality and quantity of land types in an area. The structure of land spatial pattern is an important basis of integrated physico-geo-graphical regionalization, and also is a crucial factor effecting regional development strategy.A land unit (e.g. a land system) at a certain level includes some land units (e.g. land facets) at the lower level. The comparative spatial relations of quality and quantity of the latter within the former is the inside structure of land units. This study may deepen the recognization of land unit, heighten the resolution level of investigation, and make land use planning go from overall control towards concrete design. Taking the studies in Guizhou Province of China as examples, the author also illustrates in detail the analysis methods of land structures and their applications in land classification and evaluation, land use planning, physico-geographical regionalization and regional development research.
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