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THE EFFECTS OF TOPOGRAPHY AND ELEVATION ONPRECIPITATION

Fo Baopu(Department of Atmospheric Sciences,Nanjing University)  
In this paper, a model of simulating the effects of topography and elevation on precipi-tation is presented. The topography has the max num effects on precipitation when the angle a between wind direction and slope direction approaches aero and inclination a of slope is near 45. The smaller the angle a, the greater the in luence of slope on precipitation. In case of a45, the larger the inclination, the greater the influence of slope on precipitation and the less the difference in precipitation between the w ndward slope and the leeward slope. When a 45? the reverse holds. But the influences when a varying under 45?and a changing between 22皸68?upon precipitation are not so evident and can be neglected in general. In case of uni-form slope inclination, the precipitation on windward slope increases at first and then decreases in general, there appears a maximum precipitation height (hM) and the drier the climate, the greater the hM will be..If the mountain area is very moist, hM?, it means that the maximum pre-cipitation will fall on the foot of mountain, When the terrain on windward side is ladder like in shape, it is possible to have more than one maximun precipitation heights.
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