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《ACTA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA》 1994-06
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DISRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE REGULARITIES OF SPATIAL TRANSPORT LINKAGE

Zhang Wengchang; Jin Fengjun(Institute of Geography, Academia Sinica Beijng 100101)Tang Xiufang(Economic and Planning Institute, Railway Ministry, Beijing,)  
In this paper, the distribution and exchange regularities of transport linkage are studied. The results are mainly obtained by means of studying systematically domestic and foreign data which cover nearly half century. Moreover, Several quantitative indexes are used, such as "distribution ratio","Unbalanced coefficient ","concentration degree ", " Primary linkage volume "As results of the experimental research, the spatial distribution of traffic shows followng features: 1. The spatial distribution of traffic is unbalanced,which is closely related to the distributions of population, GDP or GNP. But the distribtuion of passenger traffic is very different from that of freight traffic. ① The spatial concentration of passenger traffic is higher than that of population and GNP. In six coordinated economic regions, for example, the unbalanced coefficients of population (δP.),GNP(δGNP),and passenger traffic(δT) are 8. 69, 9. 98, 10. 56 respectively. Another example is that in Japan,the δP,δGNP and δT are 5. 54, 6. 68 and 8. 34 respectively. ② The spatial concentration of freight traffic is lower than that of population and GDP. The unbalanced coefficient of freight traffic(δF) of China is 7. 33,the δF of Japan is 3. 2. Both are lower than their δP,δGNP and δGNP 2. The historical development of traffic distribution has two stages, In the first stage which is characterized by the beginning of industrialization, the spatial distribution of traffic becomes more and more concentrated. However, in the second stage which is characterized by industrialization and postindustrialization .the spatial distribution of traffic becomes more and more balanced. In China. for example, the concentration index of distribution of passenger traffic(IT) changed from 0. 4017(1965) to 0. 4252(1980). Since then the IT decreased,and the value decreased to 0. 4087 in 1988. 3. The spatial distribution of traffic is closely related to the distribution of industries, regional economic scale and structures. The study results show that the correlative coefficient of the distributions between the passenger traffic and GNP is over 0. 80.The exchange regularities have following features. 1. There are three patterns in the interregional linkages of freight and passenger respectively. The patterns of freight transport linkages are interdependent linkage, competitive linkage, and transferred linkage. The patterns of passenger transport linkages are sloe-center linkage, tree linkage, and network linkage. 2. The interregional transport linkage has four major features. ① The intensities of linkage are sharply decreased with the increase of distance. In the interprovincial freight linkage of China,for instance, 90% of the total exchange volume is exchanged bteween those provinces within a distance less than 2000km. Only 1. 0% is exchanged between those provinces which have a distance over 4000km. ②There are central regions in interregional transport linkage Liaoning, Beijing-Taijin-Heibei, Jiangsu-Shanghai,Guangdong, for example, are four central regions of the transport linkage of China. ③Passenger transport linkage is very different from freight transport linkage. The most important differentiation is that passenger transport linkage is balanced in two opposite directions, but freight transport linkage is unbalanced. ④The linkage of a region are concentrated on several regions. The exchange volume with these regions may occupy over 70% of the total exchange volume.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金
【CateGory Index】: F512.99
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